¿Qué es una frase? Diferentes tipos de frases en la gramática inglesa.

¿Qué es una frase? Diferentes tipos de frases en la gramática inglesa.

¿Qué es una frase en la gramática inglesa? ¿Qué tan importante es dominar las frases en inglés? ¿Cuántos tipos de frases en la gramática inglesa tenemos?

What is a phrase in English Grammar?

Una frase en inglés es un grupo de palabras que no tiene una combinación de sujeto y verbo. Y como no tiene la combinación sujeto-verbo, no se sostiene por sí solo y da un significado completo. Es solo una parte de una oración o una cláusula.

Lo importante de entender acerca de una frase es que no tiene ambos: un sujeto y un verbo. Puede tener cualquiera de estos dos, pero no puede tener ambos. Si un grupo de palabras tiene tanto el sujeto como el verbo, salta a la categoría de cláusula.

Features of a phrase:

  • It is a group of words.
  • It does not have a subject-verb combination.
  • It does not give a complete meaning.

Bueno, usamos mucho las frases en nuestra vida diaria. Mucho. La mayor parte de la comunicación que hacemos en nuestra vida diaria tiene lugar en frases.

Mira la siguiente conversación y descubrirás cómo nos comunicamos en frases:

Akshay: Hey, Ashish! Where are you right now?
Ashish: In my room. What happened?
Akshay: Nothing much. It’s my birthday today. Wanna come?
Ashish: Happy birthday brother. I’d love to come but there is someone at my house right now, and I can’t leave him alone.
Akshay: who?
Ashish: My elder brother. Can I bring him with me as well?
Akshay: Sure. No problem. Bring him as well.
Ashish: And the place?
Akshay: At my guest house. Come as soon as possible.
Ashish: Just coming. On the way.
Akshay: Waiting for you. Come fast.

En el futuro, sabrá qué tipos de frases son estas. No saque ninguna conclusión en este momento; Veamos cuántos tipos de frases en inglés tenemos y cómo funcionan.

Types of phrases in English grammar

¿Qué es una frase? Diferentes tipos de frases en la gramática inglesa.

Una frase puede desempeñar diferentes roles en una oración según la selección de palabras. Puede funcionar como sustantivo, verbo, adjetivo o adverbio. Y lo interesante es que los usamos todo el tiempo. ¡Si todo el tiempo! Veamos cuántos tipos de frases en inglés tenemos y cómo funcionan.

  1. Noun phrase
  2. Verb phrase
  3. Adjective phrase
  4. Adverb phrase
  5. Prepositional phrase
  6. Gerund phrase
  7. Infinitive phrase
  8. Appositive phrase
  9. Participle phrase
  10. Absolute phrase

NOTA: Las frases en gerundio, las frases en infinitivo y las frases apositivas son solo tipos de frases nominales.

NOUN PHRASE

¿Qué es una frase nominal? ¿Es una frase nominal diferente de un sustantivo? ¿Cómo formamos un sintagma nominal? ¿Tenemos diferentes tipos de frases nominales en inglés? Bueno, yo también tuve estas preguntas como estudiante en la escuela, como muchos de ustedes. Es hora de encontrar las respuestas a estas preguntas.

Una frase que funciona como un sustantivo en una oración se llama frase nominal. Un sintagma nominal tiene un sustantivo y una palabra o palabras que lo modifican: modificadores.

¿Que es un sustantivo? Un nombre, ¿verdad? Bueno, una frase nominal también nos da un nombre. La única diferencia es que usa un par de palabras para nombrar algo o alguien. Al igual que un sustantivo, una frase nominal también funciona de la siguiente manera:

  • The subject of a sentence
  • An object of the action verb
  • An object of a preposition
  • A subject complement
  • An object complement

Noun phrase as the subject of a sentence

  • Some people deserve more than what they get.
  • The strength of a nation is its people.
  • The garden of her house is beautiful.

Noun phrase as the object of a verb

  • She bought an expensive car last month.
  • The company needs some great minds in the marketing team.
  • I gifted my friend a black shirt.

The last sentence has two noun phrases in it: my friend (indirect object) and a black shirt (direct object).

Noun phrase as the object of a preposition

  • I am a big fan of your work. (object of the preposition ‘of’)
  • We should do a study on his extraordinary brain. (object of the preposition ‘on’)
  • It’s almost impossible to pass through this small hole. (object of the preposition ‘through’)

Noun phrase as the subject complement

  • You are the love of my life. (renaming the subject ‘you’)
  • The book you gifted was a great book. (renaming the subject ‘book’)

Subject complement:
una palabra o un grupo de palabras que cambia el nombre de un tema o lo modifica/describe.

Noun phrase as the object complement

  • I am making you the head chef.
  • We are the people who elected this stupid guy our chief minister.

How to form a noun phrase?

Las frases nominales en inglés se pueden formar de tres maneras:

  1. Pre-modifiers
  2. Post-modifiers
  3. Both pre and post-modifiers

1. Noun phrases using pre-modifiers

Tenemos tres cosas en pre-modificadores:

  1. Determiners
  2. Numbers
  3. Adjectives

A) Determiners

Los determinantes son palabras que determinan la cantidad de un sustantivo. Estos incluyen los siguientes: Articlespossessive adjectivesdemonstrative adjectivesdistributive adjectives, and quantifiers.

  • Articles – a, an, the
    Noun phrases – a book, an apple, the Taj Mahal
  • Possessive adjective – my, your, his, her, their, our
    Noun phrases – my car, your sister, his mother
  • Demonstrative adjectives – this, that, these, those
    Noun phrases – this guy, that car, these people, those girls
  • Distributive adjectives – each, every, either, neither, any, both, etc.
    Noun phrases – each person, every dream, any plans, both pictures
  • Quantifiers – some, many, a few, the few, a lot of, several, etc.
    Noun phrases – a lot of people, some friends, several leaders
Premodifiers Meaning Examples
Articles a, an = refers to an unspecified singular countable noun

the = refers to a specified singular countable noun

This is a book.
I don’t have an apple.
The movie was great.
Possessive adjectives refers to the possession of a noun My house is not as big as yours.
I love your dog.
You can’t question his loyalty.
Demonstrative adjectives refers to a noun that is close or far away from the speaker Don’t touch this box.
They are planning to cut that tree.
These candies are delicious.
Do you know those people?
Distributive adjectives refers to members of a group separately You can take either box.
Neither team deserved to win the match.
Every team played well.
Quantifiers to talk about the number of the noun Bring some books to read.
I have a few friends to meet.
Many people are waiting to see me fall.
There is a lot of money in this.

B) Numbers

one, two, three, first, second, third…

Nota: Los números se consideran parte de los cuantificadores únicamente. Pero los mantenemos separados ya que se refieren a cantidades específicas.

NOTA: Los números se consideran parte de los cuantificadores solamente. Pero los mantenemos separados ya que se refieren a cantidades específicas.

Noun phrases-
two girls, three dogs, the first match, my second love

Examples:

  • Simra has two cars.
  • I bought 5 laptops last month.
  • This is my first trip to Auli.
  • She was his second wife.

C) Adjectives

Los adjetivos son palabras que describen un sustantivo. Aquí hay algunos adjetivos comunes en inglés: bueno, malo, inteligente, hermoso, tonto, rico, pobre, inteligente, tonto, sabio, feo, alto, enorme, talentoso, amable, cruel, bajo, gordo, delgado, etc.

Noun phrases – a big room, an intelligent person, an old man

Examples:

  • It is a big hotel. We all can stay here.
  • He is a tall man.
  • We need some talented people to run our business.
  • You are an old fighter.

Points to remember:

A) No podemos usar dos o más tipos de determinantes en una frase nominal.

  • A this man
  • My this car

But we do use the following structure: quantifiers + OF + possessive adjective + noun

  • Some of my friends
  • None of your projects
  • One of his students

B) Utilice dos o más modificadores previos en la siguiente estructura:

Determiners + Numbers + Adjectives + Noun

  • These many dark chocolates
  • Those 5 smart boys
  • My two younger brothers

2. Noun phrases using post-modifiers

Hay 4 cosas que vienen en los post-modificadores:

  1. Prepositional phrases
  2. Present participle phrases
  3. Past participle phrases
  4. Infinitive phrases
  5. Relative clauses
  6. Appositives

A) Prepositional phrases

Una frase preposicional comienza con una preposición y es seguida por el objeto de la preposición. Cuando una frase de preposición viene justo después de un sustantivo y lo modifica, lo llamamos posmodificador.

  • A girl with no tantrums
  • The person in the black shirt
  • Some people under your leadership

Examples:

  • I have never seen a girl with no tantrums.
  • The person in the black shirt is a neighbor.
  • Some people under your leadership are doing great.

B) Present participle phrase

Una frase de participio presente comienza con un participio presente (un verbo que termina en ‘ING’), se sienta junto a un sustantivo y lo modifica.

Noun phrases:

  • The man standing next to you
  • The girl talking to him
  • The students protesting outside the college

Examples:

  • The man standing next to you is my friend.
  • The girl talking to him is a dancer.
  • Jon is talking to the students protesting outside the college.

C) Infinitive phrase

Un grupo de palabras que comienza con un infinitivo y funciona como sustantivo, adjetivo o adverbio se llama frase en infinitivo. Como modificador de publicación, funciona como adjetivo; viene justo después de un sustantivo y lo modifica.

Noun phrases-

  • Students to teach English
  • A suit to wear at the wedding
  • Work to finish this week

Examples:

  • I have students to teach English.
  • Jon is looking for a suit to wear at the wedding.
  • There is a lot of work to finish this week.

D) Adjective/Relative clause

Una cláusula adjetiva es una cláusula dependiente que se encuentra junto a un sustantivo/pronombre y brinda información al respecto.

Noun phrases:

  • The man who gave me some money
  • The book that you gifted me last week
  • A laptop that does not catch any virus

Examples:

  • The man who gave me some money was different.
  • The book that you gifted me last week is amazing.
  • There is no laptop that does not catch any virus.

E) Past participle phrase

Una frase de participio pasado comienza con un participio pasado (V3), se sienta al lado de un sustantivo y lo modifica.

  • We have come here to see the boy injured in the attack.

Noun phrase = the boy injured in the attack
Premodifier = the (article)
Noun = boy
Postmodifier = injured in the attack (past participle phrase)

Here, the past participle phrase is identifying the noun ‘boy’ and giving essential information for us to identify him.

More examples:

  • The man taken to the police station is a terrorist.
  • The actor approached for this role is busy with his own project right now.

F) Appositives

Un apositivo es un sustantivo o una frase nominal que viene después de un sustantivo y lo renombra.

  • Her roommate Sofia Charles does not talk to people politely.

Noun phrase = her roommate Sofia Charles
Noun = roommate
Postmodifier = Sofia Charles

‘Sofia Charles’ is the postmodifier (a noun) that’s coming next to the noun ‘roommate’ and renaming it.

3. Noun phrases using pre and post-modifiers

  • The black dog that you have is scary.

Pre-modifiers:
The (article)
Black (adjective)

Post modifier:
That you have (relative clause)

  • Some young and energetic people from this city who are willing to put in extra hours are needed for this job.

Pre-modifiers:
some (determiner)
young and energetic (compound adjective)

Post modifiers:
from this city (prepositional phrase)
that are willing to put in extra hours (relative clause)

Types of noun phrases in English

1. GERUND PHRASE

¿Sabes qué es un gerundio en inglés? ¿Qué es una frase en gerundio en la gramática inglesa? Puedes o no, pero apuesto a que los usas todo el tiempo; es posible que no sepa cómo funciona un gerundio o una frase de gerundio.

Una frase que comienza con un gerundio y funciona como un sustantivo se llama frase en gerundio. Un gerundio es una palabra que se forma añadiendo ‘ing’ al final de un verbo de acción. Ex- jugar, fumar, reír, correr, fumar, enseñar, etc.

Una frase en gerundio puede desempeñar los siguientes roles en una oración:

  1. The subject of a sentence
  2. An object of a sentence
  3. An object of a preposition
  4. A subject complement

Examples:

  • Dancing in the rain makes me happy.
    Gerund phrase – dancing in the rain
    Role– the subject of the sentence
    Asking ‘what’ to the verb gets us our gerund phrase.
  • He loves going to new places.
    Gerund phrase – going to new places
    Role – the object of the verb LOVES, asking ‘what’ to the verb ‘loves’ gets us our gerund phrase. He loves ‘what’? He loves ‘going to new places.’
  • Teaching unprivileged children is a generous act.
    Gerund phrase – Teaching unprivileged children
    Role – the subject of the sentence
  • Most people hate waking up early in the morning.
    Gerund phrase – waking up early in the morning
    Role – the object of the verb ‘hate’
  • Her favorite time pass is playing with kids.
    Gerund phrase – playing with kids
    Role – subject complement
    Her favorite time pass = playing with kids
  • My hobby is making English lessons.
    Gerund phrase – making English lessons
    Role – subject complement
    My hobby = making English lessons
  • Most people are scared of speaking in front of a crowd.
    Gerund phrase – speaking in front of a crowd
    Role – the object of the preposition ‘of’
  • I can’t think about killing a human being.
    Gerund phrase – killing a human being
    Role – the object of the preposition ‘about’

Subject complement: es una palabra o un grupo de palabras que renombra o describe el sujeto de una oración.

How to form a gerund phrase?

A gerund phrase in English has the following components in it:

  1. A gerund
  2. An object of the gerund
  3. A modifier or a modifying phrase
  • Teaching unprivileged children is a generous act.
    In the above sentence, “Teaching” is the gerund, and “unprivileged children” is the object of the gerund TEACHING.
  • Dancing in the rain makes me happy.
    In this sentence, “Dancing” is the gerund, and “in the rain” is the modifying phrase that modifying the gerund (action) DANCING.

2. INFINITIVE PHRASE

Una frase en infinitivo es un grupo de palabras que comienza con un infinitivo (TO + V1) y es seguido por el objeto del infinitivo o su modificador. Generalmente funciona como un sustantivo en una oración, pero también puede actuar como un adjetivo y un adverbio.

Infinitives (TO + V1): to eat, to run, to love, to help, to sleep, etc.,

Infinitive phrases:

  • To eat food (to eat = infinitive, food = an object of the infinitive)
  • To run daily (to run = infinitive, daily = modifier)
  • To love your country (to love = infinitive, your country = an object)
  • To sleep in the day (To sleep = infinitive, in the day = modifier)

Infinitive phrases as a noun
Cuando una frase en infinitivo funciona como sustantivo, puede actuar de la siguiente manera:

  1. The subject of a sentence
  2. The object of the main verb (action verb)
  3. A Subject complement

Examples:-

  • To meet M.S Dhoni was an incredible experience.
    Infinitive phrase (subject) – to meet M.S Dhoni
  • To believe in your craft is essential for success.
    Infinitive phrase (subject) – to believe in your craft
  • You need to learn from your debacles.
    Infinitive phrase – to learn from your debacles
    Role – The object of the verb ‘need’
  • She likes to dance in the rain.
    Infinitive phrase – to dance in the rain
    Role – The object of the verb ‘likes’
  • One of my talents is to mimic people.
    Infinitive phrase (subject complement) – to mimic people
    One of my talents = to mimic people
  • My dream is to be a doctor.
    Infinitive phrase (subject complement) – to be a doctor
    My dream = to be a doctor

Infinitive phrases as an adjective
Cuando una frase en infinitivo funciona como adjetivo, viene justo después del sustantivo al que modifica.

Examples:

  • The guy to learn SEO from is Mangesh Kumar Bhardwaj.
    “To learn SEO from” is the infinitive phrase that’s working as an adjective and modifying the noun ‘guy’.
  • We need some people to work on our social media platforms.
    “To work on our social media platforms” is the infinitive phrase, giving information about the noun people.
  • I wish I had someone to stand by me.
    “To stand by me” is the infinitive phrase that describes the pronoun ‘someone’.
  • Do you need something to eat on the train?
    “To eat on the train” modifies the pronoun ‘something’.

Infinitive phrases as an adverb
Al igual que un adverbio, una frase en infinitivo también modifica un verbo y nos dice por qué motivo o propósito ocurre una acción.

  • He is working day and night to launch an application.
    “To launch an application” modifies the verb ‘working’ and tells us ‘why’ he is working day and night.
  • Most people do things to impress others.
    “To impress others” modifies the verb ‘do’ and tells us ‘why’ most people do things.

A sentence can also start with an infinitive phrase working as an adverb.

  • To make my birthday special, my friends gave me a surprise party.
    The reason they give me a surprise party was “to make my birthday special.”

3. Appositive phrase

Una frase apositiva es una frase nominal que se encuentra junto a un sustantivo y lo describe o identifica con un nuevo nombre. En otras palabras, una frase apositiva o apositiva es información adicional. Puede ser esencial, importante para el sentido de la oración, o no esencial,
información adicional que no altera el significado de una oración.

Una frase apositiva puede ser de dos tipos:

  1. Essential or restrictive appositive phrases
  2. Non-essential or non-restrictive appositive phrases

Appositive phrases and commas
Las frases apositivas no esenciales se compensan con comas antes y después de ellas. Si una oración termina con una frase apositiva, solo necesitamos una coma antes.

Por el contrario, las frases apositivas esenciales no se compensan con comas, ya que son importantes para el significado de una oración.

Examples of Non-essential appositive phrases

  • The Amazing Spider-Man, my favorite movie, is free on Netflix.
    (“My favorite movie” is the appositive phrase that’s sitting next to the noun “The Amazing Spider-Man” and renaming it with extra information. “The Amazing Spider-Man” is a specific name of a movie and does not need any description. The core sentence is “The Amazing Spider-Man is free on Netflix.”)
  • Mangesh kumar Bhardwaj, a popular blogger, is my best friend.
    (“A popular blogger” is the appositive phrase that’s remaining the noun Mangesh Kumar Bhardwaj.)
  • We are going to visit the Taj Mahal, one of the seven wonders of the world.
    (The meaning of the sentence is already clear without using the appositive phrase “one of the seven wonders of the world” as “The Taj Mahal” is a proper name and does not need modification to be identified.)

Examples of Essential appositive phrases

  • My first book “The power of self-doubting” changed many lives.
    (“The power of self-doubting” identifies and makes the meaning of the noun “My first book” specific. It helps us to identify what book it is.)
  • My friend Mangesh Kumar Bhardwaj has been working on a life-changing book for new bloggers.
    (“Mangesh Kumar Bhardwaj” is identifying the noun “my friend” with a specific name.)

VERB PHRASE

¿Qué tan difícil podría ser adivinar el significado de una frase verbal? Bueno, todo está en el plato. Parece una frase que funciona como un verbo en una oración. Eso es exactamente lo que es una frase verbal.

Una frase verbal es una combinación de un verbo auxiliar, también conocido como verbo auxiliar, y un verbo principal.

Examples-

  • I have written this post for you.
  • My mom is cooking my favorite dish while I am writing this post.
  • Everyone should meditate daily for a peaceful mind.
  • He has broken up with Nikky.
  • She might love me again.

Una frase verbal, a veces, tiene tres verbos: un verbo de acción y dos verbos auxiliares.

  • I have been waiting for a long time.
  • We could have won the match.
  • I have been teaching English for 5 years.
  • I am not eating anything right now.
    Verb phrase: am eating
    Interrupter: not
  • Has she cooked my favorite dish?
    Verb phrase: has cooked
    Interrupter: she

To put emphasis on the action, we use the auxiliaries DO, DOES, and DID.

  • She smokes.
  • She does smoke. (To emphasize the fact she smokes when nobody believes she does)
  • I keep a gun for my safety.
  • I do keep a gun for my safety. (To put more stress on the fact that I keep a gun)
  • Your girlfriend called me last night.
  • She did call me last night. (To put more stress on the event and make people believe it)

ADJECTIVE PHRASE

¿Qué es un adjetivo? ¿En qué se diferencia de las frases adjetivas en inglés? ¿Cuántos tipos de frases adjetivas tenemos en inglés? Un adjetivo es solo una palabra que modifica un sustantivo o un pronombre. Una frase adjetiva en inglés, por otro lado, es un grupo de palabras que hace lo mismo. Entonces, son como dos hermanos donde uno es más alto y el otro es más bajo. Con esta idea en mente, dominemos todo sobre las frases adjetivas en inglés.

Una frase adjetiva es un grupo de palabras que modifica un sustantivo o pronombre en una oración. Puede colocarse antes o después de la palabra (sustantivo o pronombre) que modifica o describe.

Examples:

  • The man wearing a black coat will give the presentation.
    ‘Wearing the black coat’ is the adjective phrase that’s modifying the noun ‘man’ and telling us which man the speaker is talking about. Out of all the men present there, the speaker is referring to the one who’s wearing the black coat.
  • I bought a highly expensive car.
    ‘Highly expensive’ is modifying the noun ‘car’.
  • The girl with long hair is my sister.
    ‘With long hair’ is a prepositional phrase that’s working as an adjective and modifying the noun ‘girl’. It’s helping us to identify the girl the speaker is talking about.
  • He offered me a very large pizza.
    ‘Very large’ is the adjective phrase that’s modifying the noun ‘pizza’.
  • The kite placed in the corner is expensive.
    ‘Placed in the corner’ is the past participle phrase, starting with the past participle ‘placed’ but working as an adjective and modifying the noun ‘kite’.
  • I like girls without makeup.
    ‘Without makeup’ is a prepositional phrase that’s identifying the noun ‘girls’ and limiting its meaning. Do I like all girls? No, only the girls without makeup. So, it’s working as an adjective.

Types of adjective phrases in English

  1. Prepositional phrases
  2. Past participle phrases
  3. Participle phrases

Preposition phrase

¿Qué podría ser una frase preposicional? Bueno, podrías averiguarlo con solo mirar su nombre. Vale la pena intentarlo, ¿no? ¡Vamos a averiguarlo ahora!

Las frases que comienzan con una preposición se llaman frases preposicionales en inglés. Así es como se ven: comienzan con una preposición y es seguido por un objeto de la preposición. Las frases preposicionales actúan como un adjetivo o un adverbio en una oración.

Preposition phrases as adjectives
Cuando las frases preposicionales funcionan como un adjetivo, modificando un sustantivo o un pronombre, se llaman frases adjetivales ya que funcionan adjetivamente. Tomemos algunos ejemplos de frases preposicionales en inglés.

Examples

  • They are writing a movie about his life.
    The prepositional phrase ‘about his life’ modifies the noun ‘movie’ and helps us to understand what movie he is talking about writing. It is starting with the preposition ‘about’ and is followed by the object of the preposition ‘his life’.
  • I’m marrying the girl of my dreams.
    Which girl am I marrying? The girl of my dreams. The prepositional phrase ‘of my dreams’ is helping us to identify the girl the speaker is talking about.
  • The ending of the movie wasn’t good.
    The ending of what was not good? The prepositional phrase ‘of the movie’ modifies the noun ‘ending’ and identifies it for us.
  • The guy in the red shirt is my neighbor.
    Which guy is my neighbor? The prepositional phrase ‘in the red shirt’ identifies the noun ‘guy’. Not any guy present there is my neighbor, the guy in the red shirt is my neighbor.
  • The house across the street is believed to be haunted.
    Here, the prepositional phrase ‘across the street’ modifies the noun ‘house’.
  • Don’t open the letter inside the box; it’s personal.
    Which letter is personal? The letter ‘inside the box.’
  • Students from different countries are studying in this college.
    ‘From different countries’ is the prepositional phrase that’s modifying the noun ‘students’. Without it, the sentence gives a different meaning.

Important points:-

  • A prepositional phrase always comes after the noun it modifies.
  • It always starts with a preposition.

Preposition phrases as adverbs
Las frases preposicionales pueden funcionar como adjetivos y adverbios. Cuando las frases preposicionales funcionan adverbialmente, modificando un verbo, se llaman frases adverbiales.

Examples:

  • He lives across the street.
    ‘Across the street’ is the prepositional phrase here, starting with the preposition ‘across’ and modifying the verb ‘lives’. It is telling us where he lives. So, it’s working as an adverb in the sentence.
  • The dog is hiding under the table.
    ‘Under the table’ is the prepositional phrase that’s modifying the verb ‘hiding’ and telling us about the place of the action.
  • His father sends him money at the end of every month.
    When does his father send him the money? ‘At the end of every month’ is the prepositional phrase that’s answering that question, answering ‘when’.

Participle phrases as adjectives
Una frase de participio es un grupo de palabras que consta de un participio presente, una forma ‘ing’ de un verbo, o un participio pasado, la tercera forma de un verbo (V3). Funciona como un adjetivo en una oración. No dejes que el participio te engañe; un participio parece un verbo pero funciona como un adjetivo.

Tenemos dos tipos de frases en participio en inglés:

  1. Present participle phrase
  2. Past participle phrase

Examples:

  • Played more than a million times on Youtube, my latest song is doing amazing.
    ‘Played more than a million times on Youtube’ is the adjective phrase, starting with the past participle ‘played’ and describing the noun ‘my latest song’.
  • Motivating the class and giving them clarity about life, Ashish broke down.
    The adjective phrase is describing the subject ‘Ashish’ with two events. Using a participle phrase allows you to describe a noun with more details and a clear description.
  • Your friend died in a car accident came in my dream yesterday.
    The adjective phrase is describing the subject ‘your friend’ and identifying it for us. Not any friend of yours came in my dream, the one who died in a car accident. Since the adjective phrase is essential to identify the pronoun, it is not offset using commas.
  • The little girl diagnosed with cancer has written a book about her life.
    The adjective phrase is modifying the noun ‘girl’, telling us which girl the speaker is talking about.
  • The girl dancing in the rain is the one I have a crush on.
    ‘Dancing in the rain’ is the present participle phrase, modifying the noun ‘girl’ and telling us which girl the speaker is referring to.
  • People living in Delhi are always complaining about the work the government does.
    ‘Living in Delhi’ is the present participle phrase that’s identifying the meaning of the noun ‘people’. Not all the people in the world are always complaining; people living in Delhi are. The participle phrase helps us know who these people are.

ADVERB PHRASE

Una frase que actúa como adverbio en una oración se llama frase adverbial. La función de una frase adverbial es similar a un adverbio: modifica el verbo de acción en una oración.

Examples:

  • I like working at night.
    ‘At night’ is the prepositional phrase that’s working as an adverb, modifying the verb ‘working’ and telling us when the action happens: at night.
  • She kicked the ball very hard.
    ‘Very hard’ is the adverb phrase that’s telling us ‘how’ she kicked the ball: very hard.
  • Jon acted surprisingly well in his first movie.
    ‘Surprising well’ is the adverb phrase that’s modifying the verb ‘acted’ by telling us ‘how’ he acted in his first movie.
  • She is crying at the corner of the room.
    ‘At the corner of the room’ is the prepositional phrase that’s working as an adverb, modifying the verb ‘crying’, telling us ‘where’ is action is happening.
  • The teacher addressed the students with a smile.
    How did the teacher address the students? ‘With a smile’ is the adverb phrase that’s answering this question.
  • Everyone left the ring on a stretcher.
    ‘On a stretcher’ is the prepositional phrase that’s working as an adverb, modifying the verb ‘acted’ by telling us ‘in what manner’ the action happened.

Absolute phrase

¿Una frase más? Ahora bien, ¿qué es una frase absoluta? No empieces a rascarte la cabeza pensando “¿qué es una frase absoluta?” Bueno, puede sonar complejo, pero no lo es. Para nada. ¡Dominemos la última frase de la lista!

Una frase que contiene un sujeto y un adjetivo (un adjetivo regular, un participio presente o un participio pasado) y modifica una oración completa se llama frase absoluta. Da más detalles sobre la oración que modifica. Y dado que modifica la oración con información adicional, se compensa con una coma o comas. Si una frase absoluta viene al principio o al final de una oración, usamos una coma para compensarla, pero cuando viene en medio de una oración, la compensamos usando dos comas: antes y después.

Lo importante a tener en cuenta es que no tiene un verbo finito, un verbo que tiene su sujeto y muestra tiempo (tiempo).

How to form an absolute phrase?

  • A noun or a noun phrase
  • A present or past participle, or adjective (generally a participle)
  • Objects and modifiers (optional)

Examples:

  • The wedding fixed, everyone is happy.
    ‘The wedding fixed’ is the absolute phrase here that’s modifying the sentence: Everyone is happy. “The wedding” is the noun phrase, and “fixed” is the past participle. The entire phrase is adding details to the sentence in terms of ‘what’ impact it has on the main clause.
  • She is jumping in the air with joy, her brother coming from China.
    ‘Her brother coming from China’ is the absolute phrase here that’s modifying the main clause of the sentence: she is jumping in the air with joy. ‘Her brother’ is the noun phrase, ‘coming from China’ is the modifying phrase, and ‘coming’ is the present participle (V1+ ing). It doesn’t have a finite verb in it. You must have noticed that we have offset it using a comma before it as it provides extra, non-essential, informative about the main clause.
    NOTE: We can change an absolute phrase into a sentence by adding a finite verb to the sentence.
  • She is jumping in the air with joy, her brother is coming from China.
    See, it became a sentence after bringing the finite verb “is” into the sentence, but it gives us a comma splice. A comma splice is a term given to the incorrect use of a comma to add two independent clauses.

Hay dos formas de corregir un empalme de coma:

1. USE A PERIOD OR A SEMI-COLON INSTEAD OF A COMMA.
SHE IS JUMPING IN THE AIR WITH JOY. HER BROTHER IS COMING FROM CHINA.
SHE IS JUMPING IN THE AIR WITH JOY; HER BROTHER IS COMING FROM CHINA.
2. USE A SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTION AT THE BEGINNING OF THE ABSOLUTE PHRASE THAT WE HAVE CHANGED INTO A SENTENCE (INDEPENDENT CLAUSE).
SHE IS JUMPING IN THE AIR WITH JOY AS HER BROTHER IS COMING FROM CHINA.
SHE IS JUMPING IN THE AIR WITH JOY SINCE/BECAUSE HER BROTHER IS COMING FROM CHINA.

  • Our boss shouting in anger, all the team members started working fast.
    (Absolute phrase – Our boss shouting in anger)
  • Her mom being upset, she didn’t go to the party.
    (Absolute phrase – Her mom being upset)
  • My teacher, her students leaving one by one, is depressed these days.
    (Absolute phrase – her students leaving one by one)

Position of an absolute phrase
An absolute phrase can come at the beginning of a sentence, in the middle of a sentence, and also at the end of the sentence. Generally, it comes at the beginning and at the end of a sentence.

Some important points about an absolute phrase:

  1. It starts with a noun or a noun phrase.
  2. It does not have a finite verb in it.
  3. It modifies the main clause (sentence) in a complex sentence.
  4. It is offset using a comma or two commas.
  5. It doesn’t change the original meaning of a sentence; it just provides extra information that makes the sentence more interesting and informative.

FAQs

What is a phrase in English grammar?
Una frase en inglés es un grupo de palabras que no tiene una combinación de sujeto y verbo. Y como no tiene la combinación sujeto-verbo, no se sostiene por sí solo y da un significado completo. Es solo una parte de una oración o una cláusula.

How do you identify a phrase?
Si un grupo de palabras no tiene la combinación sujeto-verbo y funciona como sustantivo, adjetivo, adverbio o verbo, es una frase en inglés.

What are kinds of phrases?

  1. Noun phrases
  2. Verb phrases
  3. Adjective phrases
  4. Adverb phrases
  5. Prepositional phrases
  6. Gerund phrases
  7. Infinitives phrases
  8. Absolute phrases
  9. Appositive phrases
  10. Participle phrases

How do you use a phrase in a sentence?
Una frase en inglés se usa como sustantivo, adjetivo, adverbio o verbo.

What are the 10 examples of phrases?
Aquí hay algunos ejemplos de diferentes tipos de frases en oraciones:

  1. She bought an expensive car last month. (noun phrase)
  2. The company needs some great minds in the marketing team. (noun phrase)
  3. The person in the black shirt is a neighbor. (prepositional phrase)
  4. The man standing next to you is my friend. (participle phrase)
  5. There is a lot of work to finish this week. (infinitive phrase)
  6. She kicked the ball very hard. (adverb phrase)
  7. Dancing in the rain makes me happy. (gerund phrase)
  8. She likes to dance in the rain. (infinitive phrase)
  9. We could have won the match. (verb phrase)
  10. The little girl diagnosed with cancer has written a book about her life. (participle phrase)

Is phrase a sentence?
Una frase no es una oración. Es un grupo de palabras que no tiene una combinación sujeto-verbo.

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