Tipos de complementos en inglés

Tipos de complementos en inglés

Esta lección te ayudará a comprender los diferentes tipos de complementos en inglés, sus usos y cómo identificarlos.

What is a complement in English?

En inglés, un complemento es una palabra o un grupo de palabras que completa el significado de una parte de la oración. Es esencial al significado de la parte que complementa; es necesario para traducir el significado que la oración pretende dar.

Types of complements

Hay diferentes tipos de complementos en inglés:

  1. Subject complement
  2. Object complement
  3. Adjective complement
  4. Verb complement
  5. Adverbial complement

Subject complement

Definición de complemento de sujeto: Un complemento de sujeto es una palabra o un grupo de palabras (frase o cláusula) que cambia el nombre del sujeto o lo modifica. Viene después de un verbo de enlace e identifica al sujeto. Cuando cambia el nombre del sujeto, lo llamamos predicado nominativo, y cuando modifica el sujeto, lo llamamos predicado adjetivo.

Un sustantivo renombra al sujeto y un adjetivo lo modifica. Haga clic aquí para dominar un complemento temático en detalle.

Predicate nominative examples:

  • Monu is my best friend.
    (My best friend, which is a noun phrase, is functioning as the subject complement as it’s giving a new name to the subject Monu. Monu = my best friend)
  • You are a lifesaver for us.
    (Here, the noun phrase ‘a lisesaver’ is a subject complement. It is giving a new name to the subject and completing the sentence. You = a lifesaver)
  • My sister is a classical dancer.
    (A classical dancer is a subject complement in the sentence, renaming the subject ‘my sister’.)

NOTA: un predicado nominativo también puede ser una cláusula. Estudia los siguientes ejemplos:

  • The problem is that you don’t listen to anyone.
  • A good think about you is that you respect everyone.

Here, the subject complements are noun clauses.

Predicate adjective examples:

  • The movie was extremely daunting.
    (Extremely daunting (an adjective phrase) is the subject complement that’s modifying the subject The movie. The movie = extremely daunting)
  • Tyson looked invincible in the fight.
    (The subject complement invincible is an adjective that’s modifying the subject Tyson. Looked here is a linking verb, not an action verb.Tyson = invincible)
  • You look handsome in this dress.
    (Handsome is the subject complement here. It is an adjective modifying the subject ‘you’. You = handsome)

NOTA: un adjetivo predicado no puede ser una cláusula. Puede ser una palabra o una frase.

Object complement

Definición de complemento de objeto: un complemento de objeto es una palabra o un grupo de palabras (frase) que viene después de un objeto directo, lo identifica y lo renombra o modifica (en qué estado se encuentra). Tenga en cuenta que un sustantivo como complemento de objeto cambia el nombre del objeto, y un adjetivo como complemento de objeto lo modifica.

Nouns as object complement

  • The company just made Ron our team leader.
    (In this sentence, ‘our team leader’ is the object complement (noun phrase) that’s renaming the object ‘him’. Ron = our team leader )
  • The students elected him the class monitor.
    (Here, the object complement ‘the class monitor’ is a noun phrase that’s modifying the object ‘him‘. Him = the class monitor)

In these examples, the object complement is either a noun or a noun phrase. But it can be a noun clause too.

I will call you whatever I want. (You = whatever I want)

Adjectives as object complement

  • Talking to Jane makes me happy.
    (Here, the object complement ‘happy’ is an adjective that’s modifying the object ‘me‘. Me = happy)
  • You proved us wrong again.
    (‘Wrong’ is the object complement here that’s modifying the object ‘me‘. Us = wrong)

NOTA: un complemento de objeto como adjetivo no puede ser una cláusula adjetiva.

Adjective complement

Un complemento de adjetivo es una frase o una cláusula que completa el significado de un adjetivo al dar más información sobre él. La información ayuda a los lectores u oyentes a comprender mejor la situación. Entonces, la información que proporciona es necesaria para completar el significado del adjetivo.

Points to note:

  • An adjective complement is more than a word: a phrase or a clause.
  • It comes right next to an adjective.
  • It sits right next to an adjective.

Las siguientes 3 cosas pueden funcionar como un complemento adjetivo en una oración:

  1. Prepositional phrase
  2. Infinitive phrase
  3. Noun clause

Prepositional phrase as an adjective complement

Una frase preposicional a menudo funciona como un complemento adjetivo en una oración. Como complemento de adjetivo, se sienta al lado de un adjetivo y proporciona más información sobre el adjetivo. Esta información que proporciona ayuda a los lectores u oyentes a comprender mejor el contexto.

Las frases preposicionales se forman usando una preposición y su objeto (sustantivo, frase nominal, cláusula nominal, pronombre).

  • I am mad about your score.
    Here, ‘about your score’ is a prepositional phrase that’s working as an adjective complement. It’s coming next to the adjective ‘mad’ and giving useful information about it. If we ended the sentence with the adjective happy, we wouldn’t have more clarity about the sentence. We wouldn’t know what the speaker is mad about.

Examples:

  • I am concerned about your health.
  • We are happy about what happened last night.
  • Sam is dedicated to this project.

Infinitive phrase as an adjective complement

Cuando una frase en infinitivo funciona como complemento de un adjetivo, habla de la razón del adjetivo (estado).

  • I am happy to see you again.
    ‘To see you again’ is an infinitive phrase that’s coming next to the adjective ‘happy’ and telling us the reason for this state of existence. It completes the meaning of the adjective by telling us why the speaker is happy.
    If it weren’t there, we wouldn’t know why the speaker is happy. This completely changes the meaning of the sentence.

Examples:

  • They were shocked to see me alive.
  • Nancy was scared to lose me.
  • I was not hesitant to leave the job for my values.
  • It is absolutely silly to argue with them.

Noun clause as an adjective complement

Una cláusula nominal es una cláusula dependiente que funciona como un sustantivo en una oración. Las cláusulas nominales a menudo comienzan con las siguientes conjunciones subordinadas: qué, quién, quién, eso, dónde, por qué, cuándo y cómo.

Pero tenga en cuenta que las cláusulas nominales, aquí, no funcionan como un sustantivo; simplemente dan información sobre un adjetivo y completan su significado.

It is evident that she is angry with us.
Here, the noun clause is giving more information about the adjective ‘evident’ and telling us what is evident. It actually shouldn’t be called a noun clause here as it’s functioning as a noun; it is functioning as a modifier: giving information about an adjective.

Examples:

  • It is disappointing that you are still working there.
  • It is evident that she is dying.
  • I am delighted that all my students have passed the exams.
  • We were shocked when he came back to our team.

VERB COMPLEMENT

Un complemento verbal suele ser un objeto que viene después de un verbo y completa su significado. Sin el verbo complemento, la oración deja de tener el mismo significado y se ve incompleta.

I need.
This sentence is incomplete without mentioning the object of the verb. Reading the sentence, you are forced to think about what I need. Let’s complete the sentence using some verb complements.

Corrections (with verb complements):

  • I need money.
  • I need your number.
  • I need some of your workers at my wedding.
  • I need a glass of water.

Now, after adding the object of the verb ‘need’, the sentence makes sense. The object here is completing the meaning of the verb.

More examples of verb complements:

  • Let’s pursue this course.
    You just can’t pursue. You need something to pursue. Without the complement (object) of the verb ‘pursue’, the sentence doesn’t make complete sense. Here, the object ‘this course’ is a complement to the verb and completes the meaning of the verb.
  • I hope that you win this competition.
    Here, the noun clause coming after the verb ‘hope’ is its complement. You don’t just hope; you hope something. Here, the noun clause is the verb’s complement. Without the complement, the sentence (I hope) looks incomplete.
  • We enjoyed watching this show.
    You enjoy something. You need something to enjoy. This verb is incomplete without it. Here, ‘watching this show’ (gerund phrase) is the complement to the verb ‘enjoy’. Try reading it without the complement: we enjoyed. It doesn’t look complete, does it?

What can be a complement to the verb?

Un verbo complemento como su objeto puede ser las siguientes cosas:

  1. Noun or noun phrase
  2. Pronoun
  3. Gerund or gerunds phrase
  4. Infinitive or infinitive phrase
  5. Noun clause

1. Noun or noun phrase
Un sustantivo o una frase nominal a menudo funciona como el objeto de un verbo. Aquí hay unos ejemplos:

  • Some of us are training kids to be fighters.
  • I don’t have money to spend.

2. Pronoun
Un pronombre también puede ser un objeto del verbo. Aquí hay unos ejemplos:

  • I have never seen him.
  • Nobody has touched you inappropriately.

3. Gerund or Gerund phrase
Un gerundio o una frase en gerundio también pueden recibir el verbo principal directamente. Aquí hay unos ejemplos:

  • My friend Monu loves playing with kids.
  • We regret asking you for help.

4. Infinitive or infinitive phrase
Un infinitivo también puede ser un objeto de un verbo. Puedes usarlo con todos los verbos de acción; hay algunos verbos que solo se pueden usar con infinitivos.

Examples:

  • I like to sing sometimes.
  • Your friends want to come to my party.

5. Noun clause
Una cláusula nominal es una cláusula dependiente que funciona como un sustantivo. También puede actuar como el objeto de un verbo. Aquí hay unos ejemplos:

  • I know that you want me to lose.
  • Nobody could imagine that you would lose the fight in the first round.

Adverbial complement

Un complemento adverbial es un adverbio o un adverbial que completa el significado de un verbo. Ayuda a que la oración exprese el significado que pretende dar. Sacar un complemento adverbial de una oración cambia el significado central de la oración; toma una parte esencial de la oración, a diferencia de un adjunto.

Es un tipo de complemento verbal ya que ayuda a completar el significado del verbo.

Examples:

  • I love coming here.
    Here, the adverb ‘here’ is a complement to the verb ‘coming’. You don’t just come; you come to a place. So, mentioning the place is important. The place has to be combined with the verb. Taking the verb complement makes it sound incomplete (I love coming). When you look at this sentence without the adverb, the question ‘where’ organically comes to your mind.
  • Don’t aim for a money fight.
    ‘For a money fight’ is the adverbial complement here. It is a prepositional phrase that is complementing the verb and helping it complete the correct meaning of the sentence. When used as an intransitive verb, it is followed by a prepositional phrase starting with either ‘for’ or ‘at’.
  • We are aiming at the manager’s post.
    When you aim at something; you plan to achieve it. Without using the prepositional phrase starting (at + object), this meaning can’t be delivered. Without the verb complement (We are aiming), the sentence is incomplete and does not render the intended meaning.

Phrasal verbs and adverbial complements

Un phrasal verb es una combinación de un verbo de acción y una preposición. La preposición en los phrasal verbs cambia el significado del verbo. El phrasal verb a menudo tiene un significado diferente del verbo solo.

Estos son algunos verbos frasales comunes en inglés:

  • Pass out
  • Break up
  • Look up to
  • Get through
  • Go after

Note que la primera palabra en estas frases es una acción y la(s) siguiente(s) palabra(s) es una preposición. Veamos algunos ejemplos usando estos phrasal verbs:

  • You will pass out before the test.
  • I can’t break up with her.
  • We look up to your father.
  • You will get through this problem.
  • The police are going after you.

The preposition in these phrasal verbs is the adverbial complement. Try reading these sentences without the preposition. The sentences stop making sense or give a completely different meaning without the preposition.

Practice set!

Encuentra todo tipo de complementos en las siguientes oraciones:

  1. You seem dedicated.
  2. I have never seen a ghost in my life.
  3. I am happy to see you again.
  4. Don’t put this on.
  5. The food you cooked last night tasted amazing.
  6. We admire your efforts.
  7. You can’t call me your friend.
  8. My parents named him Papaya.
  9. Don’t look up.
  10. I was never your enemy.

Answers:

  1. Subject complement = dedicated
  2. Object complement = a ghost
  3. Subject complement = happy, Adjective complement = to see you again
  4. Adverbial complement = on
  5. Subject complement = amazing
  6. Verb complement = your efforts
  7. Verb complement = me, Object complement = your friend
  8. Verb complement = him, Object complement = Papaya
  9. Adverbial complement = on
  10. Subject complement = your enemy

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