Verbos transitivos e intransitivos en inglés

Verbos transitivos e intransitivos en inglés

Esta publicación nos ayuda a entender los verbos transitivos e intransitivos en inglés.

What is a transitive verb in English?

transitive

Definición de verbo transitivo: un verbo transitivo es el verbo principal que tiene un objeto: una persona o un objeto al que se realiza la acción. El objeto recibe la acción (verbo transitivo) y viene justo después.

Estudia los siguientes ejemplos usando verbos transitivos:

  • I love my friends. (object = my friends)
  • I will call the students in the morning. (object = the students)
  • He studied Botany for 3 years. (object = Botany)
  • Jon and I bought a house last week. (object = a house)

Observe que los verbos transitivos en los ejemplos anteriores (en negrita) toman un objeto después de ellos (en cursiva).

A list of some transitive verbs in English

A list of some transitive verbs

eat
drink
chew
cook
cut
study
learn
love
hate
watch
see
taste
teach
learn
write
note
erase
appreciate
hate
envy
praise
feed
cook
burn
hug
kiss
touch
seduce
coax
buy
sell
give
push
start
end
finish

Examples of transitive verbs

Transitive verbs examples

Verbs Examples object
Love Everyone loves her. her
Hate I have never hated you. you
Eat My friend Monu can eat anything. anything
Wash He does not wash his clothes. his clothes
Cut Could you cut these vegetables for me? these vegetables
Drink I can’t drink this. It has alcohol in it. this
Start He has started doing his job seriously. doing his job seriously
Finish Did you finish the task you were working on? the task
Appreciate We appreciate your help. your help
Like She does not like to talk to strangers. to talk to strangers
Seduce Nobody can seduce her. her
Note down Can you note down this address for me? this address
Hug I always hug my parents before leaving for work. my parents
Cook Ashish can cook all types of cuisines. all types of cuisines

How to find a transitive verb?

Encontrar el verbo transitivo en una oración es fácil. Pregunte ‘qué’ o ‘quién’ al verbo para averiguar el objeto del verbo. La respuesta a la pregunta ‘qué’ es siempre un objeto (no vivo), y la respuesta a la pregunta ‘quién’ es siempre una persona.

Si el verbo responde a alguna de las dos preguntas, es un verbo transitivo. Pero si no es así, no es un verbo transitivo. Tomemos algunos ejemplos e intentemos esto.

  • She is cooking pasta for dinner.
    Cooking ‘what’ = pasta
    Cooking ‘whom’ = no answer (she won’t a person)
    Asking what to the verb gets us the object of the verb ‘cook’ and tells us that it is a transitive verb.
  • I did not invite Rashmi to the wedding.
    Asking whom to the verb gets us its object: Rashmi. Whom did I not invite to the wedding? It is Rashmi (the object of the verb).

NOTE
Un verbo transitivo puede tener dos objetos: el objeto directo y el objeto indirecto. Cuando un verbo transitivo tiene dos objetos, responde tanto ‘qué’ como ‘quién’.

Examples:

  • She gifted me a phone on my last birthday.
    gifted what = a phone (direct object)
    gifted whom = me (indirect object)
  • Could you pass Rohan this book?
    pass what = this book (direct object)
    pass whom = Rohan (indirect object)
  • I won’t tell them anything.
    tell what = anything (direct object)
    tell whom = them (indirect object)

Los verbos que toman dos objetos se llaman verbos ditransitivos en inglés.

A list of transitive verbs that can take two objects

get
give
gift
teach
tell
buy
suggest
ask
show
read
order
buy
bring
hand
promise
throw
sing
serve
sell
owe

Examples:-

  • My father gifted me a car on my last birthday.
    The verb gifted is ditransitive. It is followed by an indirect object (me) and a direct object (a car).
    Gifted what = a car
    Gifted whom = me
  • She gave him some chocolates.
    She gave what = some chocolates (Direct object)
    She gave some chocolates to whom = him (Indirect object)
  • Sing me a song, please!
    sing ‘what’ = a song
    sing ‘whom’ = me

What can be the object of a transitive verb?

Esto puede ayudarte a identificar y comprender mejor los verbos transitivos. El objeto de un verbo transitivo puede ser el siguiente:

  1. Noun
  2. Pronoun
  3. Gerund
  4. Infinitive

Noun

  • I love Aaru. (noun)
  • I love my friends. (noun phrase)
  • I love what you are eating. (noun clause)

Pronoun

  • I love it.
  • I love you.

Gerund

  • I love teaching English. (gerund phrase)
  • I hate eating boiled vegetables. (gerund phrase)
  • Do you love swimming? (gerund)

Infinitive

  • She likes to dance sometimes. (infinitive)
  • She likes to correct people. (infinitive phrase)

What is an intransitive verb?

Un intransitivo es opuesto a un verbo transitivo. A diferencia de un verbo transitivo, un intransitivo no puede o no toma un objeto directo.

Examples:

  • I was sleeping when you called.
    (Sleep is an intransitive verb; it can’t take an object. You can’t sleep something or somebody.)
  • Why did you smile at that guy?
    (Smile is an intransitive verb; you don’t smile something or somebody. You can do that at somebody or something. That guy is the object of the preposition ‘at’ here.)
  • We laughed so hard during the match.
    (You can’t laugh something or somebody. Laugh is an instransitive verb; it can’t be acted to a person or a thing.)
  • Why are you crying?
    (You can’t cry a person or a thing. It is not an action verb that can have a direct object.)

A list of some intransitive verbs

sleep
cry
laugh
whine
sneeze
smile
fall
listen
subscribe
yell
shout
pose
stand
go
come
cough
scream
run
sit
swim
vomit
pee
defecate
sigh
pout
fume
panic
worry
look
jump
arrive
fly
relax
die

La mayoría de los verbos intransitivos no pueden tomar un objeto. Pero hay verbos que pueden ser tanto verbos transitivos como intransitivos.

A list of verbs that can be both transitive and intransitive verbs

Verbs that transitive verbs and intransitive verb

Verbs Transitive verbs Intransitive verbs
Move Can you move this to your room? The car was moving fast.
Run He is running this business well. He was running fast in the park.
Change Let’s change the plan. He has changed. He is not the same person anymore.
Close They closed the shop early. The shop closes at 9 pm.
Open Don’t open your eyes. I have something for you. The shop opens at 8 am.
Stop Can you stop yelling at me? When the train stopped, we went outside and got something to eat.
Start Stop her going there. The movie started very late.
Do We did what we could. We did well in the game.

Transitive vs Intransitive verbs

Tanto los verbos transitivos como los intransitivos son verbos principales (generalmente verbos de acción) que funcionan de manera diferente en una oración. Un verbo transitivo tiene un objeto directo que viene justo después, pero un verbo intransitivo no tiene un objeto directo. No puede tener un objeto directo o no lo tiene en la oración.

Transitive verb examples:

  • I have never kissed my girlfriend.
  • Jon is recording a video right now.
  • He could have killed you if he wanted to.
  • They envy me because of what I have achieved in life.

Intransitive verb examples:

  • He is pouting.
  • He sighed after the meeting ended.
  • Everyone panicked when we lost the keys.
  • He is not coming to the party.

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