¿Qué es un adjetivo predicativo? Ejemplos y reglas

¿Qué es un adjetivo predicativo? Ejemplos y reglas

What is a predicate adjective in English?

Definición de adjetivo predicado: un adjetivo predicado, como su nombre indica, es un adjetivo o una frase adjetiva que se encuentra junto a un verbo de enlace y modifica el sujeto de una oración.

Un adjetivo predicativo es un tipo de complemento de sujeto, ya que identifica al sujeto y completa su significado dando información sobre él. Es diferente de un adjetivo atributivo. Un adjetivo atributivo se sienta antes del sustantivo al que modifica.

Predicate adjective: This car seems expensive for us.
Attributive adjective: This expensive car is not for us.

Entonces, a diferencia de un adjetivo atributivo, un adjetivo predicativo viene junto a un verbo de enlace y modifica el sujeto. Antes de tomar ejemplos de adjetivos predicados, debemos saber qué son los verbos de enlace y qué son los verbos de enlace comunes en inglés.

What is a linking verb in English?

Un verbo de enlace es un tipo de verbo principal que vincula el sujeto de una oración con algo llamado complemento de sujeto.

Un complemento de sujeto es una palabra o un grupo de palabras que identifica al sujeto y completa su significado ya sea renombrándolo o modificándolo. Un sustantivo como complemento del sujeto (predicado nominativo) cambia el nombre del sujeto, y un adjetivo como complemento del sujeto (predicado adjetivo) modifica el sujeto.

  • Jon is an excellent teacher. (A noun phrase that’s giving the subject a new name)
  • Jon is extremely nice. (An adjective phrase that’s modifying the subject)

En ambos ejemplos, los complementos de sujeto vienen después del verbo de enlace: IS.

A list of linking verbs in English

TO BE
TO BE: is, am, are, was, were, may be, might be, should be, would be, can be, could be, must be, will be, shall be,
BEING: is being, am being, are being, was being, were being, has been, have been, had been,
BEEN: may have been, must have been, could have, should have been, will have been, shall have been, might have been

To be form of verbs

TO SEEM seem, seems, seemed
TO LOOK look, looks, looked
TO FEEL feel, feels, felt
TO SOUND sound, sounds, sounded
TO TASTE taste, tastes, tasted
TO SMELL smell, smells, smelt
TO STAY stay, stays, stayed
TO BECOME become, becomes, became
TO GO go, goes, went, gone
TO REMAIN remain, remains, remained
TO TURN turn, turns, turned
TO GET get, gets, got
TO APPEAR appear, appears, appeared

A list of linking verbs

Predicate adjective examples using the verbs TO BE (is, am, are, was, were)

  • Ashish is polite to everyone.
  • Your friends are really supportive.
  • I am scared of dogs.
  • Our head teacher was rude to everyone in the class.
  • Most people were afraid to lose their jobs in the lockdown.

Predicate adjective examples using the verbs TO BE + BEING

  • You are being extremely rude to us.
  • I am not being reasonable about the prices.
  • The shopkeeper is being very smart.
  • Last night, your girlfriend was being flirty with me.
  • Your friends were being sarcastic at the party.

Predicate adjective examples using the modal verbs (modals + be)

  • The doctors may be wrong about your conditions. Let’s not lose hope.
  • We should be very careful with how to approach this situation.
  • Your mother might be upset with you.
  • His new book that he launched last month should be less expensive.
  • The match can be exciting.
  • Let’s get some food. The flight could be late.
  • I’ll meet her, but she must not be taller than you.
  • She will be late to work today. Don’t wait for you.
  • The boss would be upset with you if you didn’t complete it in time.

Predicate adjective examples using the modal verbs (modals + have + been)

  • Jon might have been high when he stole his house.
  • The food would have been tasty if I had cooked it.
  • We could have been more reasonable about the deal.
  • She is not going to talk to you again. You should have been respectful toward her.
  • I may have been busy at that time.

Predicate adjective examples using other linking verbs

  • You seem unhappy with your job.
  • She seemed drunk at the party.
  • Ross and Monica look beautiful together.
  • You looked confident in the meeting.
  • This cake tastes heavenly.
  • The food in the party last night tasted extremely awful.
  • She always smells nice.
  • Your parents appear mad at me.
  • When Tony was called for his speech, he appeared lost.
  • Most people stayed motivated through the pandemic.
  • I felt terrible about his loss.
  • After you left the party, Jim went crazy and started dancing with the waitress.
  • She goes mad if someone touches her bag.
  • The students got very emotional thinking of leaving the school.
  • He turned red after hitting the pads.

Predicate adjective and predicate nominative

Tanto los adjetivos de predicado como los nominativos de predicado vienen justo después de un verbo de enlace. La clave para identificarlos es mirar lo que viene después del verbo de enlace.

Si lo que viene después de un verbo de enlace es un adjetivo o una frase adjetiva, es un adjetivo predicado, y si es un sustantivo, una frase nominal o una cláusula nominal, es un predicado nominativo.

Examples:-

  • We will be extremely happy if she comes back to our team. (Adjective phrase)
  • We will be the winner if she comes back to our team. (Noun phrase)
  • The reason for closing the office is stupid. (Adjective)
  • The reason for closing the office is that we didn’t have enough money. (Noun clause)

Compound predicate adjective

Un adjetivo predicativo compuesto es una combinación de dos o más adjetivos o frases adjetivas. Estos son algunos ejemplos de adjetivos predicativos compuestos:

  • She is smart and good-looking.
  • That guy looked skillful, calculated, and reasonable in his approach.

Don’t use an adverb after a linking verb!

No cometa el error de usar un adverbio después de un verbo de enlace.

  • It tasted strongly. ❌
  • It tasted strong. ✔️
  • You smell nicely. ❌
  • You smell nice. ✔️

NOTA: los adverbios no se usan justo después de los verbos de enlace, pero, a veces, se pueden usar antes de los verbos de enlace.

  • You always look pretty.
  • Jon never goes mad.

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