Frases en participio en ingles

Frases en participio en ingles

Las frases en participio están destinadas a decorar nuestras oraciones con información. Pero antes de saltar directamente a ellos, debemos saber qué son los participios.

What is a participle in English?

Un participio en inglés es una forma verbal que funciona como adjetivo en una oración. Cuando hablamos de participios, a menudo nos referimos a estos dos tipos de participios:

Present participle: it is a progressive form of a verb, V1+ing, that works as an adjective in a sentence. Ex – running train, crying man, winning team, etc.
Past participle: it is a past participle form of a verb, V3, that works as an adjective in a sentence. Ex – demotivated man, fixed match, broken glass, etc.

Examples of participles in a sentence

  • The crying man is my neighbor.
    (modifying the noun man)
  • He is a very demotivated person.
    (modifying the noun person)
  • I can’t catch a running train.
    (modifying the noun train)
  • It was a fixed match.
    (modifying the noun match)
  • When will you fix the broken window?
    (modifying the noun window)
  • The winning team will get 1 million dollars.
    (modifying the noun team)

Entonces, ahora sabemos qué son los participios en inglés. ¡Vamos a dominar lo que son las frases en participio! Las frases de participio también se conocen como frases de participio. Así que no te confundas cuando veas frases en participio en lugar de frases en participio.

Nota: en estos ejemplos, el sustantivo que se modifica no tiene líneas.

What are participle phrases/participial phrases?

Una frase de participio es un grupo de palabras que está encabezada por un participio (participio presente, pasado o perfecto) y modifica un sustantivo, como lo hace un adjetivo o una frase adjetiva. Entonces, una frase de participio no es más que un tipo de frase adjetiva. No dejes que el participio te engañe; un participio parece un verbo pero funciona como un adjetivo. Lo vimos en los ejemplos anteriores.

Las frases en participio pueden modificar verbos u oraciones completas.

Examples of participle phrases/participial phrases

  • Played more than a million times on Youtube, my latest song is doing amazing.
    (Played more than a million times on Youtube is the past participle phrase, starting with the past participle played and describing the noun my latest song.)
  • Motivating the class and giving them clarity about life, Ashish broke down.
    (The past participle phrase is describing the subject Ashish with two events. Using a participle phrase allows you to describe a noun with more details and a clear description.)
  • The little girl diagnosed with cancer has written a book about her life.
    (The participle phrase is modifying the noun girl, telling us which girl the speaker is talking about. It is helping us identify the girl.)
  • The girl dancing in the rain is the one I have a crush on.
    (Dancing in the rain is the present participle phrase that’s modifying the noun girl and telling us which girl the speaker is referring to.)
  • People living in Delhi are always complaining about the work the government does.
    (Living in Delhi is the present participle phrase that’s identifying the meaning of the noun people. Not all the people in the world are always complaining; people living in Delhi are. The participle phrase helps us know who these people are.)

How to form a participle phrase?

Una frase en participio se puede seguir de las siguientes maneras:

Participle + object of the participle
Participle + object of the participle + modifiers
Participle + modifiers
1. Participle + object of the participle

  • The guy beating the old man is crazy.
    Participle phrase: beating the old man
    Present participle: beating
    The object of the participle: the old man

2. Participle + object of the participle + modifier/s

  • The guy beating the old man with no mercy is crazy.
    Participle phrase: beating the old man with no mercy
    Present participle: beating
    The object of the participle: the old man
    The modifying phrase (adverb phrase): with no mercy (telling how the action happened)

3. Participle + modifier/s

  • The girl dancing crazily in the rain is the one I have a crush on.
    Participle phrase: dancing crazily in the rain
    Present participle: dancing
    Modifier 1 (adverb of manner): crazily
    Modifier 2: in the rain (telling the place of the action)

Types of participle phrases

Types of participle phrases

Tenemos dos tipos de frases en participio:

  1. Present participle phrase
  2. Past participle phrase
  3. Perfect participle phrase

Comencemos primero con las frases en participio presente.

Present participle phrases

Una frase de participio presente comienza con un participio presente, un verbo que termina en ‘ing’, y funciona como un adjetivo. ¡Veamos algunos ejemplos!

Examples of present participles:

  • The guy hiding behind the door is from a different class.
    (Hiding behind the door is the present participle phrase, starting with the present participle hiding and modifying the noun guy, telling us which guy the speaker is referring to. The entire phrase is working as an adjective.)
  • The girl dancing in the rain is the one I have a crush on.
    (Here, dancing in the rain is the present participle phrase that’s modifying the noun girl and telling us which girl the speaker is referring to.)
  • Watching from the balcony, Jyoti enjoyed the game.
    (The present participle phrase is coming at the beginning of a sentence, describing the subject Jyoti. When a participle phrase comes at the beginning of a sentence, it is separated from the rest of the sentence using a comma after them.)
  • Joe Rogan, living the life of a martial artist, is the owner of JRE, the most popular podcast on the internet.
    (The present participle phrase is offset using two commas in this example as it gives nonessential information about the noun it describes: Joe Rogan.)

Past participle phrases

Las frases en participio pasado comienzan con un participio pasado (V3) y modifican un sustantivo o un pronombre. ¡Veamos algunos ejemplos!

Examples of past participles:

  • Your friend died in a car accident came in my dream yesterday.
    (The past participle phrase is describing the subject your friend and identifying it for us. Not any friend of yours came in my dream, the one who died in a car accident did. Since the past participle phrase is essential to identify the pronoun, it is not offset using commas.)
  • Considered the best application for learning English, my English learning application just crossed 1 billion downloads.
    (The past participle phrase is modifying the noun phrase my English learning application. When a participle phrase at the beginning of a sentence, we must use a comma after it.)
  • The insurance company will not pay for everything destroyed by the fire.
    (The past participle phrase is modifying the pronoun everything, telling us what it includes. Since it is essential to identify the pronoun, it is not offset using a comma.)
  • I am planning to buy iPhone 11, rated 4.9 by the experts.
    (The past participle phrase is modifying the noun iPhone 11, but it is giving nonessential information about it, and that’s why it is separated from the rest of the sentence using a comma.)

Perfect participle phrase

Una frase en participio perfecto identifica al sujeto de una oración y se refiere a un tiempo anterior al tiempo del verbo principal. El participio pasado suele funcionar como la razón de la oración principal.

Structure (active voice): Having + past participle (V3) + object/modifier (or both)
Structure (passive voice): Having + been + past participle (V3) + object/modifier (or both)

Examples:

  • Having heard the news of Jon’s accident, we decided to take the day off and see him.
    (Here, the perfect participle phrase (in red) identifies the subject we, and tells us the reason why the action in the main clause took place. Notice that the action happened in the main clause happened the action in the perfect participle phrase.)
  • Having paid the fine already, I got my licence back.
    (The perfect participle phrase refers to the subject I and works as the reason of the main clause. I reason I got my license back since I had already paid the fee.)
  • Having been picked on multiple times, Max decided to learn self-defense.
    (Here, the subject the perfect participle phrase refers to is not the doer of the phrase; the subject of the main clause receives the action in the perfect participle phrase. Max did not pick on anyone; he was picked on by someone.)
  • We went shopping having been given the day off.
    (Here, the perfect participle phrase is sitting at the end of the sentence and modifies the main clause by telling us the reason for the main clause.)

Participle phrases and commas!

Así que hemos usado comas con algunas frases en participio y con otras no. Entonces, ¿cómo sabemos si tenemos que usar comas con una frase de participio o no? Entendamos esto.

1. When a participle phrase comes at the beginning of a sentence, we must use a comma after it.
MOTIVATING THE CLASS AND GIVING THEM CLARITY ABOUT LIFE, ASHISH BROKE DOWN.
PLAYED MORE THAN A MILLION TIMES ON YOUTUBE, MY LATEST SONG IS DOING AMAZING.

2. Generally, a participle phrase gives essential information and is not offset using commas when it comes after the noun or the pronoun it modifies. But when it gives nonessential information, use one or two commas depending upon its place in the sentence. Preparing you smart brains for every scenario!
JOE ROGAN, LIVING THE LIFE OF A MARTIAL ARTIST, IS THE OWNER OF JRE, THE MOST POPULAR PODCAST ON THE INTERNET.
I AM PLANNING TO BUY IPHONE 11, RATED 4.9 BY THE EXPERTS.

Why do we start a sentence with a participle phrase?

Las frases de participio se usan al comienzo de una oración para preparar el escenario para el sustantivo o el pronombre que modifica. Nos dicen algo sobre el sujeto (sustantivo o un pronombre) que modifican incluso antes de que llegue.

  • Played more than a million times on Youtube, my latest song is doing amazing.
  • Motivating the class and giving them clarity about life, Ashish broke down.

See, we set the stage for the nouns these participle phrases are modifying.

Don’t misplace your participle phrases!

Has entendido qué son las frases en participio y cómo usarlas. Ahora, debe tener cuidado con el lugar donde coloca su frase de participio; colocarlo un poco lejos de la palabra que modifica puede terminar dándote un modificador fuera de lugar. Es como, en una habitación oscura, estás haciendo el amor con una chica que es la esposa de otra persona, pensando que es tuya, y tu chica te está esperando en tu habitación, sin cambios. ¿Interesante? Veamos algunos ejemplos.

DOWNLOADED BY MORE THAN A MILLION PEOPLE, I FELT GREAT ABOUT MY APPLICATION.

(La frase en participio está sentada al lado del sujeto I, pareciendo estar modificándolo. Ahora, haz esta pregunta: ¿me pueden descargar? No, ¿verdad? Entonces, esta frase en participio está fuera de lugar, pero la oración todavía está gramaticalmente bien. Es solo que parece torpe y ambiguo. La gente podría considerar que esta frase de participio modifica el sujeto I donde se pretende modificar la aplicación del sustantivo).

BROKEN INTO MULTIPLE PIECES, MAX TOOK HIS PHONE TO A MOBILE ENGINEER.

(Nuevamente, la frase de participio parece estar modificando un sustantivo incorrecto: Max.)

WE ARE PLANNING TO START A BUSINESS, MOTIVATED BY SADHGURU.

(La frase de participio aquí parece estar modificando el sustantivo negocio, al lado del cual está sentado. Ahora, haga la misma pregunta: ¿puede motivarse un negocio? ¿Es una persona? La frase de participio tiene la intención de modificar el sujeto nosotros, pero parece estar modificando el negocio.)

How to avoid misplacing your participle phrase?

La mejor manera de hacerlo es colocar las frases en participio junto a la palabra o palabras que modifican. Pongámoslos bien.

I FELT GREAT ABOUT MY APPLICATION, DOWNLOADED BY MORE THAN A MILLION PEOPLE.

MAX TOOK HIS PHONE, BROKEN INTO MULTIPLE PIECES, TO A MOBILE ENGINEER.

MOTIVATED BY SADHGURU, WE ARE PLANNING TO START A BUSINESS.

Dangling modifiers using participle phrases.

Los modificadores colgantes son modificadores que no tienen nada que modificar en una oración. Las frases de participio pueden ser modificadores colgantes cuando se usan innecesariamente. Déjame mostrarte algunos ejemplos.

  • Listening to the songs, the place started shaking.
    (Who was listening to the songs? The place? Do we have anything in the sentence that can listen to the songs? No, right? This is what a dangling modifier is; it dangles without its target.)
  • Felt offended, the movie was taken down.
    (The sentence does not have a word the participle phrase can modify. A movie can’t be offended.)

How to correct a dangling modifier?

Hay dos formas de corregir un modificador colgante:

  1. Remove the participle phrase.
  2. Add a noun or a pronoun that the participle phrase can possibly modify.

LISTENING TO THE SONGS, I FELT THE PLACE STARTED SHAKING.
THE PLACE STARTED SHAKING

FELT OFFENDED, THE CENSOR BOARD TOOK THE MOVIE DOWN.
THE MOVIE WAS TAKEN DOWN.

FAQs

What is a participle phrase in grammar?
Una frase de participio perfecto se refiere a una acción que ocurrió antes de la acción en la cláusula principal. Identifica el sujeto de la oración principal y actúa como la razón por la cual tuvo lugar la oración principal.

What is an example of a participle phrase?

  1. Reproducida más de un millón de veces en Youtube, mi última canción está funcionando increíble.
  2. La chica que baila bajo la lluvia es de la que estoy enamorado.
  3. Considerada la mejor aplicación para aprender inglés, mi aplicación para aprender inglés acaba de superar los mil millones de descargas.

How do you find the participle phrase in a sentence?
Así es como puedes encontrar una frase en participio:

  1. Comienza con un participio (presente, pasado o perfecto) y es seguido por su objeto o un modificador, o ambos.
  2. Modifica un sustantivo o un verbo (generalmente un sustantivo).
  3. Viene antes de un sustantivo (al comienzo de una oración), justo después de un sustantivo/pronombre, o al final de una oración.

What are the three participles?
Hay tres tipos de participios en inglés:

  1. Present participle (It was an exciting match.)
  2. past participle (You are a motivated person.)
  3. Perfect participle (Having finished the meal, we went outside.)

What is the difference between gerund and participle phrases?
Un gerundio es una forma progresiva de un verbo que funciona como un sustantivo. Por otro lado, las frases de participio funcionan como un adjetivo, a veces también como un adverbio.

What is the purpose of a participle phrase?
Una frase en participio identifica el sujeto de una oración y da información sobre él. Además de modificar un sustantivo, una frase de participio también modifica la cláusula completa (principal) y, a menudo, funciona como la razón de la cláusula principal.

  1. Ashish, known for his witty humor, loves playing with kids. (modifying the subject ‘Ashish’)
  2. Thinking about the future of his kids, Max started crying. (identifying the subject ‘Max’ and working as the reason for the main clause)

Can a participial phrase be used as an adverb?
Sí, una frase en participio puede funcionar como un adverbio en una oración. Cuando funciona como adverbio, modifica la oración principal y funciona como la causa de la oración principal.

  • Ex – Looking at the picture of her dead mother, Jackie broke down in tears.
    Here, the participial phrase (italicized) identifies the subject ‘Jackie’ and also works as the reason for the main clause. Jackie broke down because of looking at the picture of her mother. So, it is working as an adverb too.

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