Objeto directo en ingles
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Objeto directo en ingles

Objeto directo en ingles

Esta publicación lo ayudará a comprender qué es un objeto directo, qué puede ser un objeto directo y cómo identificarlo.

What is a direct object?

Un objeto directo es una palabra o un grupo de palabras (una frase o una cláusula) que recibe una acción directamente. Los objetos directos responden a las preguntas ‘QUÉ’ o ‘QUIÉN’. La respuesta de qué es una cosa y la respuesta de quién es una persona.

Tenga en cuenta que solo los verbos transitivos pueden tomar un objeto directo. Si el verbo es intransitivo, no podemos tener un objeto directo en la oración. Hablaremos de verbos transitivos al final de la publicación.

Estudiemos algunos ejemplos de objetos directos.

  • We eat green vegetables for breakfast.
    Asking what or whom to the verb gets our direct object. Let’s ask the question: What or whom do we eat for breakfast? The answer is green vegetables. So, it’s answering the question. It is only natural to think that the object won’t be a person here as we eat things, not people.
  • My friend Jon loves Riya.
    Whom does Jon love? It is Riya who he loves. The action (love) is received by Riya. She receives the action directly. The direct object can be a thing or a person; you can love something or somebody.
  • They canceled my ticked yesterday.
    Ask yourself: Can you cancel something? The answer is yes. Whatever you cancel is the direct object of the verb cancel. What did they cancel in the example? The answer is my ticket. That’s the direct object. Notice that you can’t cancel a person; cancel is one of those verbs that can’t take a person as its direct object.

How to find a direct object?

Encontrar el objeto directo no es tan difícil como algunos de nosotros pensamos que es. Solo hay dos pasos que se deben seguir para encontrar un objeto directo:

  1. Find the verb (action or stative)
  2. Ask ‘WHAT’ or ‘WHOM’ to the verb

NOTA: el verbo del objeto directo suele ser un verbo de acción. Pero también puede ser un verbo estativo. Además, tenga en cuenta que algunos verbos estativos no toman un objeto; toman un complemento ya que funcionan como verbos de enlace. Aprenderemos más sobre ellos en el futuro en la lección.

Examples:

  • I was playing cricket when you called.
    Verb = play (action)
    Play ‘what’ = cricket (direct object)
  • I will buy your book.
    Verb = buy (action)
    Buy ‘what’ = your book (direct object)
  • I would share my story with you all very soon.
    Verb = share (action)
    Share ‘what’ = my story (direct object)
  • Do you eat meatballs?
    Verb = eat (action)
    Eat ‘what’ = meatballs (direct object)
  • I just opened the box secretly.
    Verb = opened (action)
    Opened ‘what’ = the box (direct object)
  • Jon was the only guy who helped Simran in her assignment.
    Verb = helped (action)
    Helped ‘whom’ = Simran(direct object)
  • I love everyone.
    Verb = love (stative)
    Love ‘whom’ = everyone (direct object)
  • We don’t understand his strategy.
    Verb = understand (stative)
    Understand ‘what’ = his strategy (direct object)
  • Everyone in my family likes you.
    Verb = like (stative)
    Like ‘whom’ = you (direct object)
  • You don’t own any shares in my company.
    Verb = own (action)
    Own ‘what’ = any shares (direct object)

Direct objects answering ‘WHAT‘

  1. I have never had fish in my life.
  2. Do you teach English here?
  3. Last night, we sold our house to a lady.
  4. We are writing a letter to the chairman of the society.
  5. Susan opened a cafe in this area last week.
  6. Have you published your first book yet?
  7. You should sign the deal. It will make you rich.
  8. My father does not drink tea after breakfast.
  9. I play the guitar.
  10. She does not drive her car; her brother does.

Direct objects answering ‘WHOM‘

  1. I love Riya with all my heart.
  2. Did the company fire Samuel yesterday?
  3. I can’t coach you.
  4. Why did you slap her?
  5. I haven’t invited my manager to my wedding.
  6. You can’t disrespect your father like this.
  7. Stop mocking the kid. He will start crying.
  8. I trust Monu more than anyone.
  9. The company is paying us a lot.
  10. I haven’t met Rohan this week.

A list of verbs that can’t take a person as a direct object; these can only take a thing as the direct object:

  • Eat
  • Drink
  • Book
  • Cancel
  • Fry
  • Cook
  • Splash
  • Brush
  • Speak
  • Consume
  • Do
  • Start
  • Finish
  • End
  • Say
  • Wear
  • Play
  • Sing
  • Owe
  • Crack
  • Place
  • Purchase
  • Buy

Estos verbos no toman a una persona como objeto directo; sólo toman una cosa como objeto directo.

Similarly, there are verbs that don’t take a thing as a direct object. Here is the list:

  • Treat
  • Beat
  • Help
  • Console
  • Bother
  • Forgive
  • Hurt
  • Murder
  • Arrest
  • Kidnap
  • Imitate
  • Investigate
  • Irritate
  • Mock
  • Marry
  • Divorce
  • Offend
  • Persuade
  • Scold
  • Surprise
  • Scare

What can be a direct object?

What can be a direct object?

Un objeto directo puede ser una palabra, una frase o una cláusula. Estudiemos todos los casos para no dejar piedra sin remover.

A WORD AS THE DIRECT OBJECT

Cuando es una palabra, generalmente es un sustantivo de una sola palabra. Pero también puede ser un gerundio (una forma ING de un verbo).

Examples:

  • I want money.
  • Do you Know Rahul?
  • We should not waste water as there is not much drinking water left.
  • Your friends are playing chess in the hall.
  • We love shopping. (gerund)
  • I don’t hate teaching; I do it for the love of it.
  • She prefers running to walking.

NOTA: Solo los verbos estativos pueden tomar gerundios como objetos directos; Los verbos de acción no toman gerundios como sus objetos.

A PHRASE AS THE DIRECT OBJECT

Las siguientes frases pueden ser el objeto directo de un verbo:

  1. Noun phrase
  2. Gerund phrase
  3. Infinitive phrase

Examples:

  • One of my friends broke my phone yesterday. (noun phrase)
  • I have called a great friend of mine to help you wth this problem. (noun phrase)
  • Did you invite people from your gym to our function? (noun phrase)
  • Do you love playing games? (gerund phrase)
  • I don’t mind working with Jon. He is a god guy. (gerund phrase)
  • I would like to open my cafe someday. (infinitive phrase)
  • We want to play games. (infinitive phrase)
  • You need to leave right now. (infinitive)

A CLAUSE AS THE DIRECT OBJECT

A CLAUSE AS THE DIRECT OBJECT

Una cláusula también puede ser el objeto directo de un verbo. Tenga en cuenta que solo una cláusula nominal puede actuar como objeto directo, ninguna otra cláusula puede hacerlo.

Examples:

  • Did you try what I sent you yesyerday?
    Try ‘what’ = what I sent you yesterday
  • You don’t know who I am talking about.
    know ‘whom’= who I am talking about
  • I like what I see here.
    Like ‘what’ = what I see here
  • No one understood why you left the job.
    Understood ‘what’ = why you left the job
  • You can say whatever you want to say.
    Say ‘what’ = whatever you want to say
  • Let’s eat what the guy in the blue jacket is eating.
    Eat ‘what’ = what the guy in the blue jacket is eating

Don’t confuse a direct object with a subject complement

Un objeto directo solo viene después de un verbo de acción o algunos verbos de estado. Por otro lado, un verbo de enlace toma un complemento de sujeto. Un objeto directo recibe el verbo y un complemento de sujeto cambia el nombre del sujeto o lo modifica.

NOTA: un objeto directo o cualquier objeto es siempre un sustantivo o un pronombre. Por otro lado, un complemento de sujeto puede ser un sustantivo o un adjetivo. Un objeto directo como sustantivo o equivalente de sustantivo recibe el verbo, y un complemento de sujeto como sustantivo renombra al sujeto. Es evidente que un adjetivo no puede ser objeto, pero sí puede ser complemento de sujeto, modificando al sujeto.

Examples:

  • Rohan is my teacher.
    Does the sentence have an action verb? No, it doesn’t. When it doesn’t have an action verb or a stative verb, it is not possible to have the object of the verb. The sentence has a linking verb ‘is’, which links the subject (Rohan) to its complement (my teacher). The complement is a new name given to the subject. It is one person with two names: Rohan = my teacher.
  • Jon hired Rita after the discussion.
    Here, Rita is the object of the verb ‘hired‘. Ask ‘hired whom’. The answer is Rita. Notice that the subject and the object are two different people. Rita is not a new name given to the subject; it is the person who the subject (Jon) acted upon. Jon ≠Rita
  • You seem happy.
    Seem is a linking verb. ‘Happy’ is an adjective here that is modifying the subject. You = seem.
  • I got a lot of money from the program.
    Here, the verb ‘got’ is a dynamic verb (action), and its object is ‘a lot of money’. It means ‘receive’. I ≠ a lot of money.
  • Hearing his story, I got sad.
    Here, the verb ‘get’ is a linking verb. The adjective ‘sad’ is modifying the subject, telling in what state the subject was. I = sad

Can the subject and the direct object be the same?

Sí, la respuesta es sí. Cuando el sujeto realiza una acción sobre sí mismo, usamos un pronombre reflexivo como objeto directo.

  • I blamed myself for the state I was in.
  • She killed herself last night.
  • You are just troubling yourself.

Direct objects and transitive verbs

Los objetos directos y los verbos transitivos van de la mano. Para tener un objeto directo, el verbo tiene que ser transitivo. Un transitivo toma un objeto. Pero si el verbo es intransitivo, no puede tener su objeto. Los verbos intransitivos no toman un objeto.

  • Let’s eat pasta.
    Eat is a transitive verb. You can eat something. Here, pasta is what the subject eats; it is the direct object.
  • I slept in the kitchen last night.
    Can we sleep something or someone? No, we can’t. We can sleep on something with someone, but we can’t sleep something or someone as it doesn’t take an object. It is an intransitive verb.
  • Monica is laughing at us right now.
    Ask the same question again: Can we laugh something or someone? The answer is NO. We can’t laugh someone or something. We just laugh; this activity does not take an object.

La diferencia entre un verbo transitivo y un verbo intransitivo es que los verbos transitivos responden a la pregunta “qué” o “quién” y los verbos intransitivos no.

DIRECT OBJECT vs INDIRECT OBJECT

Un objeto directo es una cosa o una persona que recibe directamente la acción. Por otro lado, un objeto indirecto es algo (generalmente una persona) que recibe el objeto directo. La acción se realiza para el objeto indirecto. Preguntar ‘quién’ o ‘para quién’ al verbo nos da el objeto indirecto.

NOTA: un verbo no puede tener un objeto indirecto sin tener un objeto directo.

Examples:

  • My parents gave me an expensive gift on my last birthday.
    Gave ‘what’ = an expensive gift (direct object)
    Gave it to whom (who received it) = me (indirect object)
  • Could you pass Jon this book?
    Pass ‘what’= this book (direct object)
    Pass it to whom = Jon (indirect object)
    Jon is the receiver of the direct object. The book goes to him.
  • I have brought you some cookies.
    Brought what = some cookies (Direct object)
    Brought them for whom (receiver) = you (indirect object)

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