Discurso directo e indirecto con ejemplos y explicaciones

Discurso directo e indirecto con ejemplos y explicaciones

Discurso directo e indirecto con ejemplos y explicaciones

Cada vez que alguien te dice algo o comparte algo contigo, hay dos formas de narrar lo que dijo la persona:

  • Discurso directo
  • Estilo indirecto

Supongamos que vas a una tienda de móviles para comprar un teléfono móvil específico. Al llegar, uno de los ejecutivos dice: “No tenemos este teléfono”. Vuelve a casa. Tu hermano mayor quiere saber qué pasó. Hay dos formas de transmitir lo que te dijo el ejecutivo.

Discurso directo: uno de los ejecutivos dijo: “No tenemos este teléfono”. (Citando las palabras exactas del ejecutivo)

Discurso indirecto: Uno de los ejecutivos dijo que no tenían ese teléfono. (Narrando el mensaje del ejecutivo con sus propias palabras)

What is direct speech?

Definición de discurso directo: Es una forma de narrar lo que alguien dijo usando las palabras exactas del hablante. El estilo indirecto (las palabras del hablante) se coloca entre comillas y se compensa con una coma.

What is indirect speech?

Definición de discurso indirecto: en el discurso indirecto, las palabras originales del hablante se cambian. Los pronombres, el tiempo y los adverbios de tiempo y lugar en el estilo indirecto (las palabras del hablante) se modifican. Estas cosas, no siempre, pero a menudo, se cambian porque el mensaje original se entregó en algún momento del pasado, pero lo narramos después de un tiempo. Eso crea una diferencia de tiempo en recibir el mensaje y narrarlo a alguien. Por lo que tenemos que remontarnos al pasado para referirnos al momento adecuado.

DISCURSO DIRECTO: SANDHYA ME DIJO: “ME ENCANTA HABLAR CONTIGO”.
DISCURSO INDIRECTO: SANDHYA ME DIJO QUE LE ENCANTABA HABLAR CONMIGO.

Note: The conjunction ‘That’ in the indirect speech can be eliminated too. The sentence is still correct without it.

DISCURSO INDIRECTO: SANDHYA ME DIJO QUE LE ENCANTABA HABLAR CONMIGO.

Note: Changing the tense of the reported speech in indirect speech is called back-shifting.

En el ejemplo anterior, cuando estamos informando las palabras del hablante en estilo indirecto, estamos retrocediendo el tiempo (tiempo) de la acción hacia atrás. Cambiamos el tiempo hacia atrás ya que las palabras del hablante pueden no ser ciertas o no ser relevantes al momento de narrarlas a alguien.

Le encantaba hablar conmigo en el momento de entregar el mensaje, pero ahora, en el momento de narrar a alguien, esto podría no ser cierto. Puede que ahora no le guste hablar conmigo. Esa es exactamente la razón por la cual el tiempo se retrotrae más atrás en el pasado para mostrar el tiempo y la acción precisos.

Pero cuando estás narrando el mensaje del orador justo después de que se dice, no necesitas retroceder el tiempo ya que casi no hay diferencia entre el momento de recibir el mensaje del orador y el de narrarlo a alguien.

Supongamos que estamos en una fiesta. Sandhya y yo estábamos intercambiando palabras. Tu también estabas ahí. Ella dijo: “Me encanta hablar contigo”. No lo escuchaste. Vienes a mí y me preguntas: “¿Qué te dijo ella?”

Te cuento que me dijo que le encanta hablar conmigo. Es bastante improbable que cambie de opinión en tan solo unos segundos.

Examples of direct and indirect speech

  • Direct speech: She said to me, “It is raining outside.”
  • Indirect speech: She told me that it was raining outside.
  • Direct speech:I bought my favorite phone yesterday,” he told me with excitement.
  • Indirect speech: He told me with excitement that he had bought his favorite car the previous day.
  • Direct speech: Max said, “This is my school.”
  • Indirect speech: Max said that that was my house. (You are not there in front of the school.)
  • Indirect speech: Max said that this is my house. (You are still there in front of the school.)

How to change direct speech to indirect speech?

How to change direct speech to indirect speech

Estos son los cambios que debe realizar para cambiar un discurso directo a un discurso indirecto:

1. Remove quotation marks and the comma from the direct speech.

  • Direct speech: She said to me, “It is raining outside.”
  • Indirect speech: She told me that it was raining outside.

2. Use the conjunction THAT before the reported speech. Its use is optional though.

2. Use the conjunction THAT before the reported speech. Its use is optional though.

  • Direct speech: Sandhya said to me, “I love talking to you.”
  • Indirect speech: Sandhya told me that she loved talking to me.
  • Indirect speech: Sandhya told me she loved talking to me.

3. Change the pronoun/s of the reported speech.
El sujeto (pronombre) del estilo indirecto (estilo indirecto) se cambia según el sujeto o el objeto de la cláusula introductoria, y su objeto se cambia según el objeto de la cláusula introductoria.

According to the subject

  • Direct speech: Sandhya said to me, “I love talking to you.”
  • Indirect speech: Sandhya told me that she loved talking to me.

According to the object

  • Direct speech: The students said to me, “You were teaching amazingly well.”
  • Indirect speech: The students said that I had been teaching amazingly well.

These are some direct and indirect speech rules we need to master!

3.1 Backshift the tense

Original tenses Backshift to the following tenses
Present simple tense Past simple tense
Present continuous tense Past perfect continuous tense
Present perfect tense Past perfect tense
Past simple tense Past perfect tense
Past continuous tense Past perfect continuous tense

Backshift in direct and indirect speech

3.2 Change the adverb of time and place

Adverbs of time and place in the direct speech Change in the indirect speech
Now/just Then
Today That day
Yesterday The previous day or the day before
Tomorrow The next day
Last night The previous night or the night before
This week That week, last week
Next year The following year, in 2020
Ago Before
The next day/week/year The following day/week/year
Hence Thence

Change in adverbs in direct to indirect speech

How to change direct speech to indirect speech in different tenses?

1. Present simple to past simple tense
Cuando el discurso directo está en tiempo presente simple, se cambia al tiempo pasado simple en el estilo indirecto.

Direct indirect speech examples:

  • Direct speech: “I work with the top CEOs of the world,” he boasted.
  • Indirect speech: He boasted that he worked with the top CEOs of the world.
  • Direct speech: Sandhya told me, “You look amazing in this dress.”
  • Indirect speech: Sandhya told me that I looked amazing in that dress.
  • Direct speech: “The sun rises in the east,” my father informed us.
  • Indirect speech: My father informed us that the sun rises in the east.

NOTE: When what’s being said is still valid or related or universal, we don’t backshift the tense. In the third example, we have not changed the tense.

2. Present continuous to past continuous tense
Cuando el discurso directo está en tiempo presente continuo, se cambia al tiempo pasado continuo en el discurso indirecto.

Direct indirect speech examples:

  • Direct speech: “You are making a lot of noise,” the teacher said angrily.
  • Indirect speech: The teacher said angrily that we were making a lot of noise.
  • Direct speech: She said, “I am getting married next month.”
  • Indirect speech: She said that I am getting married next month.

NOTE: The next month has not come yet. She narrated the message before the message gets irrelevant.

3. Present perfect tense to past perfect tense
Cuando el discurso directo está en tiempo presente perfecto, se cambia al tiempo pasado perfecto en el discurso indirecto.

Direct indirect speech examples:

  • Direct speech: “I have finished the work,” Max said to me.
  • Indirect speech: Max told me that he had finished the work.
  • Direct speech: She said, “You have not helped me now.”
  • Indirect speech: She said that I had not helped her then.

4. Simple past tense to past perfect tense
Cuando el discurso directo está en tiempo pasado simple, se cambia al tiempo pasado perfecto en el estilo indirecto.

Direct indirect speech examples:

  • Direct speech: “We finished the task on time,” he said to me.
  • Indirect speech: He told me that they had finished the task on time.
  • Direct speech: Rahul said to me, “I enjoyed working with you.”
  • Indirect speech: Rahul told me that he had enjoyed working with me.

5. Past continuous tense to past perfect continuous tense
Cuando el discurso directo está en tiempo pasado continuo, se cambia al tiempo pasado perfecto continuo en el discurso indirecto.

Direct indirect speech examples:

  • Direct speech: The students said to me, “You were teaching amazingly well.”
  • Indirect speech: The students said that I had been teaching amazingly well.
  • Direct speech: “He was sleeping here,” the lady told me.
  • Indirect speech: The lady told me that he had been sleeping here.

Modal auxiliary verbs in direct and indirect speech

Modal verbs in direct speech Modal verbs in indirect speech
Will Would
Shall Would
Would Would
Can Could
Could Could
May Might
Might Might
Should Should

Modal verbs in Direct and Indirect speech

Examples:-

  • Direct speech: “You can’t beat me in a street fight,” He said to me.
  • Indirect speech: He told me that I could not beat him.
  • Direct speech: “We will screw your career,” the company said.
  • Indirect speech: The company said that it would screw my career.
  • Direct speech: “We might visit you tomorrow, “my friends said to him.
  • Indirect speech: My friends said to him that they might visit him the next day.
  • Direct speech: “You may get the Job,” Ronny said to me.
  • Indirect speech: Ronny told me that I might get the job.
  • Direct speech: “I should start working on my communication skills,” He said in frustration.
  • Indirect speech: He said in frustration that he should start working on his communication skills.

Important points:
1. SAY can’t be followed by an indirect object without the preposition TO. TELL is followed by an indirect object.

  • He said me that I teach amazingly well. (Incorrect)
  • He said to me that I teach amazingly well. (Correct)
  • He told me that I teach amazingly well. (Correct)

2. Don’t backshift the tense of the reported speech if what’s been said is universally true or is still relevant at the time of narrating it to someone.

  • Direct speech: “He is my father,” Jon informed me.
  • Indirect speech: Jon informed me that he is his father.
  • Direct speech: “We are going to London in 2022,” She said.
  • Indirect speech: She said that they are going to London in 2020. (You are saying it in 2021).
  • Direct speech: Rahul said, “India is a democratic country.”
  • Indirect speech: Rahul said that India is a democratic country.

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