Verbos causativos en detalle

Verbos causativos en detalle

Esta publicación lo ayuda a comprender los verbos causativos en inglés y cómo usarlos.

What are causative verbs?

Los verbos causativos, como su nombre indica, son los verbos que indican que una persona, normalmente el sujeto, provoca que otra persona realice una acción por ella o por otra persona. Puedes hacer que alguien haga algo solicitándolo, forzándolo, ordenando, persuadiendo, preguntando, convenciendo o simplemente pagando.

Estos son los verbos causativos más comunes en inglés:

  • Have
  • Let
  • Get
  • Make
  • Help

Entendamos cómo estos verbos funcionan como verbos causativos y por qué los llamamos verbos causativos.

LET

El verbo dejar significa “permitir o permitir que alguien haga algo”. Los verbos causativos, como cualquier otro verbo principal, se pueden usar en cualquier tiempo.

Structure: Subject + let (all tenses) + person (object) + bare infinitive (V1)

  • My father lets us watch TV after dinner.

My father allows us to watch TV after dinner. While eating dinner, he does not allow us to watch TV.

Examples:

  • He never lets me touch his phone.
  • They didn’t let us talk.
  • I will never let her go there.
  • Why don’t you let him play with us?
  • You must let him study with Riya.
  • I couldn’t let him talk rudely to your mother.

A veces, el sujeto del verbo causativo ‘let’ está implícito: YOU.

  • Let me handle this. (= You let me handle this.)
  • Please let us go.
  • Let them do what they want to do.

MAKE

El verbo ‘hacer’ como verbo causativo significa “forzar o presionar a alguien para que haga algo”.

Structure: Subject + make (all tenses) + person (object) + bare infinitive (V1)

  • We did not have money to pay them, so they made us clean the dishes.

They forced us to clean the dishes as we didn’t pay them for the food we had eaten.

Examples:

  • She made me take up this course. I was never up for this.
  • My brother always makes me clean his room.
  • You can’t make me do what I don’t like.
  • I should make her take this job.
  • The police made them surrender and reveal their plans.
  • I will make you regret this.

HAVE

El verbo ‘tener’ como verbo causativo significa “pedir, instruir o solicitar a alguien que haga algo”. Hacer que alguien haga algo es, de alguna manera, hacer que la persona lo haga, pero pidiéndole o pagándole. Pero no tienen muchas opciones o generalmente aceptan lo que les pides que hagan porque les pagan por la acción o te respetan lo suficiente como para decirte “no”.

  • My father had me pick up the guests from the station.

My father caused (asked) me to do an action: pick up the guests. He asked me to do it, but I didn’t have much of a choice to say ‘no’ to him because I both feared and respected him enough. So, he made me do the action in a way, but not directly.

Structure 1: Subject + have (all tenses) + person + to + base verb (V1)

Examples:

  • I will have him talk to you.
  • I had Jon pay the bill last night.
  • I will have Sneha show you the campus.
  • We had him paint all the walls.
  • I will have Rohin cut my hair.

In the above examples, the actions (verb) that the object (person) performs are in the active voice. They can be in the passive voice too. In the passive form, what the object (person) acts upon is important and is what we focus on and leave the object (person) unmentioned.

Structure 2: Subject + have (all tenses) + object + past participle

  • I will have the man repair my bike tomorrow. (active)
  • I will have my bike repaired tomorrow. (passive)

Note que en la forma pasiva, el sujeto no ha mencionado a la persona que hace la acción por él; el foco está en el objeto (la cosa) sobre la que actúa: mi cabello. Es obvio que alguien hará la acción, pero no es importante quién hace la acción; lo importante es aquello sobre lo que actúa.

Active voice Passive voice
I will have Rohin cut my hair in the evening. I will have my hair cut in the evening (by Rohan).
We had Jimi complete our project. We had our project completed.
We will have Rohan check your assignment. We will have your assignment checked.

Tenga en cuenta que en la voz pasiva, la persona por la que hacemos algo no se menciona o está entre paréntesis, ya que la persona no es importante.

Nota: también podemos usar verbos modales con causativos. El verbo modal precede al verbo causativo.

  • You should have him give the presentation.
  • I must have her present our idea in front of the judges.
  • We could have Simi do the editing. She has done it before.

GET

El verbo ‘obtener’ como verbo causativo significa “convencer a alguien para que haga algo o persuadir, alentar o engañar a alguien para que haga algo”. A veces también pagas por la acción.

Structure 1: Subject + get (all tenses) + person (object) + infinitive (to + V1)

  • I got Jyoti to write my essay. She is great at it.

Initially, Jyoti was not going to write my essay. But I convinced her to do that for me.

Examples:

  • They got me to write content for their website.
  • I got him to sign the papers. Now, the property is yours.
  • Max got all of us to join the party.
  • You should get your younger brother to handle your social media accounts.
  • I can’t get him to do anything. He does not listen to me.
  • Did you get him to read the story?
  • How do you get her to cook food for you? She never cooks for us.

Structure 2: Subject + get (all tenses) + the object (thing) + past participle

Active voice Passive voice
I got him to sign the papers yesterday. I got the papers signed yesterday.
She is getting me to cut her hair. She is getting her hair cut.
Jon got him to repair your laptop. Jon got your laptop repaired.
How did you get them to hire him? How did you get him hired?

HELP

El verbo ‘ayudar’ no hace exactamente que alguien haga algo, pero ayuda a la persona a realizar la acción. Entonces, podemos llamarlo un verbo semi-causativo.

Meaning = to aid someone in doing something

Structure: Subject + help (all tenses) + someone (object) + infinitive or bare infinitive

Examples:

  • I helped him to write the report.
    or
  • I helped him write the report.
  • She never helps me prepare breakfast.
  • Jonny will help you solve this matter.
  • Will you help me do this?
  • My sister Riya helps me edit the videos.
  • You should help her to reach there.
  • You must help me get this job.

Other causative verbs

Assist = to help or aid someone in doing something
Force = to make someone do something forcefully
Pressurize = to make someone do something forcefully or by putting pressure on them
Require = make someone do something (a part of the process generally)
Convince = to get someone to do something by convincing them
Coax/persuade = to get someone to do something by being kind, gentle, and persistent or at least appear to be doing it gently and kindly

Examples:

  • He forced me drink that slimy thing.
  • You can’t pressurize us to leave the job.
  • This job requires us to be good at coding.
  • She convinced me to wear that jacket.
  • His friends coaxed/persuaded us to come with them.

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