Frases en participio presente en detalle

Frases en participio presente en detalle

En esta publicación, aprendemos qué es una frase de participio presente y cómo usarla en una oración correctamente.

What is a Present participle phrase?

Una frase que comienza con un participio presente y modifica un sustantivo en una oración se llama frase de participio presente. Comienza con un participio presente (una forma ING de un verbo) y es seguido por su objeto y/o un modificador.

Generalmente modifica un sustantivo hablando de su estado (lo que la persona está haciendo).

Possible structures:

  • Present participle + object + modifier/s
  • Present participle + object
  • Present participle + modifier/s

Examples:

  • The girl sitting beside the tree is the topper of our class.

Sitting – present participle
Besides the tree – adverb phrase (modifier)

Sitting beside the tree is the present participle phrase that’s starting with the present participle ‘sitting’ and modifying the noun ‘girl’. It tells us which girl the speaker is talking about by giving information about her.

  • Wearing a black coat, he enters the hall and waves at the students.

Wearing – Present participle
A black coat – the object of the verb ‘wearing’

The present participle phrase is telling us the state of the noun it’s modifying. When the subject (he) entered the hall and waved at the students, he was in a certain attire: wearing a black coat. So, the present participle phrase identifies the pronoun ‘he’ and gives us information about him.

  • Feeding the little girl with his own hand, Avi started crying.

Feeding – present participle
the little girl – the object of the verb ‘feeding’
with his own hand – adverb phrase

The main clause is “Avi started crying.” The present participle phrase is telling us in what state the subject (he) was when he started crying: he was feeding the little girl with his own hand.

Usages of a present participle phrase

Las frases de participio presente a menudo se usan de las siguientes maneras:

  1. To identify a noun and describe it
  2. To give the reason of the main clause
  3. To give the result of an action

1. To identify the noun

Las frases de participio presente a menudo se usan para ayudar a los lectores u oyentes a identificar u obtener más información sobre un sustantivo o pronombre. La información que proporciona puede ser esencial o no esencial.

  • Nobody likes to talk with the man sitting on the rock alone.

Present participle – sitting
Modifier (adverb phrase) – on the rock alone

Here, the present participle phrase identifies the noun ‘man’ and gives essential information about him.

  • Listening to his favorite songs, Max checked all the papers and signed the posters.

Present participle – listening
to – preposition
the object of the preposition – his favorite songs

In this example, the present participle phrase modifies the noun ‘Max’ with extra information; Max is already a proper noun and needs no modification in order to be identified. It is describing the scene while he is checking the papers and signing the posters. The scene is that he is listening to some songs while performing doing actions.

Examples:-

  • Holding a cup of coffee in her hands, Jyoti watched us play cricket.
  • Look at the little girl walking on the rope.
  • He shook my hand and said goodbye, tears rolling down her cheeks.
  • We hid behind a wall, watching the boys rob a shop.
  • They are looking for the man living with you.
  • Can you see the tiny girl playing with the sand? She looks adorable doing that.
  • We entered the haunted house, trembling and sweating with fear.

2. To give the reason of the main clause

Las frases en participio presente a veces introducen la razón de la acción de la oración principal.

  • Looking at the picture of his mother, Max started smiling.

Present participle – looking
Modifier (adverb of place) – at the picture of his mother

‘Max started crying’ is the main clause. Looking at the picture of his mother (the present participle phrase) identifies the subject ‘Max’ and causes (makes) him smile.

Examples:

  • Knowing he needed the money urgently for the surgery, he started panicking and crying.
  • Listening to what her colleagues said about her, she left the room and started crying.
  • Missing the college days, I called my friends.
  • Looking at the positive side of the job offer, Max accepted it.

3. To give the result of an action

A veces usamos frases de participio presente para presentar el resultado de una acción. Cuando introducen el resultado de la cláusula principal, suelen ir al final de la oración.

  • The car exploded into the house, hurting people sitting on the couch.

Present participle – hurting
object – people
modifier (present participle phrase) – sitting on the couch

The present participle phrase here is a result of the main clause. Notice the present participle (hurting) follows the subject of the main clause (the car): it is the car that hurt people who were sitting on the couch.

Examples:

  • He started talking about the death of his child, leaving everyone in tears.
  • The plane crashed into the building, destroying it and killing more than 200 people.
  • The government opened up the theatres, supermarkets, and beaches, giving everyone a reason to be happy about.
  • The company hired us all, giving us an opportunity to prove that you don’t a piece of paper to prove your worth.

Nota: el participio presente en la frase de participio presente sigue al sujeto de la cláusula principal.

Position of a present participle phrase

Una frase de participio presente puede tomar las siguientes tres posiciones:

  1. Beginning of a sentence
  2. In the middle of a sentence
  3. At the end of the sentence

Beginning of a sentence
Esta es la posición más común de una frase de participio presente en la escritura. Tenga en cuenta que usamos una coma justo después de la frase para compensarla de la cláusula principal.

Examples:-

  • Holding a cup of tea, Jon enters the building.
  • Laying on the bed, Charu wrote the entire post.
  • Sitting in the exam room, I realised I didn’t love giving exams anymore.

Middle of a sentence

A veces, una frase de participio presente viene justo después del sujeto (sustantivo/pronombre).

Examples:

  • Alex, looking into his phone, told us to leave the room.
  • He, sitting on a gaming chair, took the class.

End of a sentence

Podemos tener una frase de participio presente después del objeto de una preposición. A veces, viene después de una oración completa, separando la oración principal e indicando el efecto posterior de la oración principal o simplemente modificando un sustantivo o el sujeto de la oración principal.

Examples:

  • They caught the guy wearing the red jacket the other day.
    (coming next to and identifying the noun ‘guy’)
  • I was talking about the man sitting next to your sister.
    (coming next to and identifying the noun ‘man’)
  • Conor submitted Justin in the final round, leaving everyone surprised.
    (The present participle phrase is not identifying any noun/pronoun here, It’s modifying the complete main clause, showing the result of the action in the main clause)
  • She left the room, fuming and crying.
    (Here, the present participle phrase is identifying the subject ‘she’, and telling us what her state was while she was leaving the room.)

Key points!

1. Don’t confuse a present participle phrase with a gerund phrase.

Es muy común confundir frases de participio presente con frases de gerundio ya que ambas comienzan con un participio presente (v+ing) y tienen objetos y/o modificadores en ellas.

Pero una frase en gerundio funciona como un sustantivo, mientras que una frase en participio presente funciona como un adjetivo o un adverbio en una oración.

Examples:

  • Listening to his favorite songs, he finished editing the video.

Listening to his favorite songs is the present participle phrase starting with the present participle listening and modifying the pronoun he. It is not working as a noun here.

  • Listening to his favorite songs makes him happy. (subject)
  • He loves listening to his favorite songs. (The object of the verb loves)
  • His favorite hobby is listening to his favorite songs. (The subject complement)
  • He is crazy about listening to his favorite songs. (The object of the preposition about)

Here, the phrase ‘listening to his favorite songs’ is working as a noun.

Observe que una frase de participio presente modifica algo, generalmente un sustantivo, en la cláusula principal, y una frase en gerundio funciona como un sustantivo.

2. Participle phrases and commas!

Hemos usado comas con algunas frases de participio y con otras no. Entonces, ¿cómo sabemos si tenemos que usar comas con una frase de participio o no? Entendamos esto.

1. If a participle gives essential information about the noun it modifies, don’t use a comma.

  • The girl dancing on the stage is my sister. (giving essential information about the noun ‘girl’)
  • I was talking about the man sitting at the back bench with Riya. (giving essential information about the noun ‘man’)

Here, the present participle phrases (in red) help us to identify the noun the speaker is referring to.

2. If a participle gives nonessential information about the noun it modifies, use commas to offset it.

  • Holding a cup of tea, Jon enters the building.
  • Joe Rogan, living the life of a martial artist, is the owner of JRE, the most popular podcast on the internet.

Tenga en cuenta que el sustantivo al que se refieren estas frases de participio presente ya está identificado y es propio.

3. Present participle phrases either modify a noun or a verb, or a complete sentence.

Generalmente, una frase de participio presente modifica un sustantivo o un pronombre, pero también puede modificar un verbo o una oración completa.

Examples:

  • Motivating the class and giving them clarity about life, Ashish broke down. (modifying the noun ‘Ashish’)
  • Missing the college days, I called my friends. (modifying the verb ‘called’)
  • The car exploded into the house, hurting people sitting on the couch. ((modifying the main clause)

4. Don’t misplace your present participle phrase.

Las personas a menudo extravían frases de participio (tanto frases de participio presente como pasado), que modifican o parecen modificar un sustantivo incorrecto o nada en una oración.

Estudie los siguientes ejemplos para entender esto:

  • Max bought a new car looking forward to impress people.

Notice that the present participle phrase is coming next to the noun ‘car’ and seem to modify it. But can a car look forward to something? Is it a human being? Does it have feelings? No! The noun it intends to modify is Max, but since it is placed far away from it, close to another noun, it seems to modify the noun ‘car’ incorrectly.

  • Trying to get some money, the house had to be sold.

Trying to get some money is the present participle phrase that appears to modify the subject of the sentence ‘the house’. But can the house (an object) really do an action? Can it lose a job? It can’t, right? And there is nothing else in the sentence that can be modified. So, the present participle phrase becomes dangling: hanging in the sentence without the word or words it intends to modify.

Objetos directos e indirectos en inglés

Objetos directos e indirectos en inglés

Un objeto en inglés es una parte del predicado de una oración que recibe la acción de un verbo de acción. Es algo o alguien sobre quien se ejerce la acción directa o indirectamente.

Ahora, hay dos tipos de objetos de un verbo en inglés:

  • Objeto directo
  • Objeto indirecto

What is a direct object?

Un objeto directo es alguien o algo que recibe directamente una acción. Pregunta qué o quién al verbo para averiguar el objeto directo de una oración.

Examples of direct objects:

  • He kicked the ball so hard.
    Kicked what?
    Direct object = the ball
  • Max threw the phone in anger.
    Threw what?
    Direct object = the phone
  • I love my friends.
    Love whom?
    Direct object = my friends
  • The company is hiring experienced coders.
    Hiring whom?
    Direct object = experienced coders
  • He is cooking fish in the pan.
    Cooking what?
    Direct object = fish
  • We are learning English.
    Learning what?
    Direct object = English
  • Do you understand what I am saying?
    Understand what?
    Direct object = what I am saying
  • Let’s finish what we started.
    Finish what?
    Direct object = what we started

How to find the direct object in a sentence?

Como te dije, pregunta ‘qué’ o ‘quién’ al verbo para encontrar el objeto directo de un verbo. La respuesta a ‘qué’ es siempre una cosa, y la respuesta a ‘quién’ es siempre una persona.

  • I love my people.
    (Asking whom to the verb gets our direct object. I love whom? The answer (the direct object) is my people.)
  • Sammy loves dark chocolates.
    (Here, asking what to the verb gets our direct object. I love what? The answer (the direct object) is dark chocolates.)

More examples of direct objects in sentences:

Jon is writing a script for a movie.
He bumped his head into the wall.
You should never hit a woman.
Most people want a good job.
I can’t share my personal details with someone I don’t know well.
She loves troubling me.
I finally kissed her after several years. It was amazing.
Nobody understands what she is going through.
We are planning to surprise Jerry on her birthday.

Some transitive verbs: eat, learn, take, kiss, hit, slap, write, plan, like, love, hate, admire, share, pass, drink, push, move, drive, open, close, cut, wash, fill, etc.

These are some transitive verbs in English. They are generally followed by an object.

Love – You can love something or somebody. There has to be an object to love.
Eat – You always eat something or somebody. The action of eating has to be acted upon an object.
Hit – Can you simply hit? You hit an object: a person or a thing.
Learn – We learn something. We just can’t learn. There has to be something to learn.

Now, opposite to transitive verbs are intransitive verbs. Intransitive verbs don’t have an object.

Some common intransitive verbs: sleep, yawn, laugh, cry, sit, jump, clap, smile, walk, relax, collapse, fall, dance, weep, lean, sigh, etc.

  • Sleep – Can you sleep someone or something? You can’t. You just sleep or sleep on something/somebody.
  • Laugh – You can’t laugh someone or something. You just laugh, maybe at something or somebody.
  • Dance – Can you dance someone or something? No, it can’t have a direct object.

Examples:-

  • I won’t eat in front of these people.
  • She can’t cook here.
  • Sometimes, my friends don’t think before doing anything.

All the transitive verbs (eat, cook, think) in these sentences are not followed by an object, which they generally are.

What is an indirect object?

Un objeto indirecto es un sustantivo o un pronombre que recibe el objeto directo en una oración. Preguntar ‘a quién’ o ‘para quién’ obtiene el objeto indirecto de una oración.

Indirect object examples:

  • My cousins got me a smartwatch last month.
    Got what? Direct object = a smartwatch
    For whom? Indirect object = me
  • I will buy you whatever you want.
    Buy what? Direct object = whatever you want
    For whom? Indirect object = you
  • The teacher brought us some amazing chocolates.
    Brought what? Direct object = some amazing chocolates
    For whom? Indirect object = us
  • He offered my parents some help when they needed it the most.
    Offered what? Direct object = some help
    For whom? Indirect object = my parents

Direct object and Indirect object examples:

He gifted me a book on my last birthday.
I will tell you my story soon.
My students sent me an emotional message.
My father will buy me a bike for my next birthday.
I baked Rony her favorite cookies.
Monu borrowed me a vintage car.
She brought him some homemade sweets.
My teacher wrote my parents a long letter.
Jon gave the school a million dollars.

The parts that are bold and italic (black) are indirect objects, and the parts that are coloured red are direct objects.

A list of some common ditransitive verbs: Gift, buy, bring, write, send, ask, give, suggest, hand, lend, offer, sing, sell, teach, tell, serve, owe, pass, feed, etc.

How to find the indirect object in a sentence?

Para encontrar el objeto indirecto en una oración, lo primero que debemos hacer es buscar el verbo ditransitivo. Si tiene un verbo ditransitivo en su oración, las posibilidades de tener el objeto indirecto en su oración son extremadamente altas.

Lo segundo que debe hacer es preguntar ‘para quién’ o ‘a quién’ al verbo, le dará el objeto indirecto del verbo.

Let me show you an example!

Here, the verb of the sentence is SENT. Let’s try the trick we just learned to find the indirect object. To whom did my students send an emotional message? Asking this gets us our indirect object: ME.

Gerunds or gerunds phrases as direct objects

Un objeto directo de un verbo puede ser un gerundio: un verbo que termina en ‘ING‘ que funciona como sustantivo.

Examples of gerunds as direct objects:

  • I love teaching.
    (Love what? Direct object = teaching)
  • I love teaching English.
    (Love what? Direct object = teaching English)
  • Riya enjoys playing with kids.
    (Enjoys what? Direct object = teaching English)
  • Most people hate waking up early.
    (Hate what? Direct object = waking up early)

Infinitives or infinitive phrases as direct objects

Algunos verbos transitivos toman un infinitivo como objeto directo. Un infinitivo es una forma TO + V1 de un verbo que funciona como sustantivo en una oración. También puede funcionar como adjetivo y como adverbio.

Examples of infinitives as direct objects:

  • She likes to sleep a lot.
    (Likes what? Direct object = to sleep)
  • Jacob want to open a school.
    (Wants what? Direct object = to open a school)
  • We forgot to bring the money.
    (Forgot what? Direct object = to bring the money)
  • She is planning to get married now.
    (Planning what? Direct object = to get married)

TE IMPORTARÍA y TE IMPORTARÍA

TE IMPORTARÍA y TE IMPORTARÍA

Tanto las frases “te importaría” como “te importaría” se utilizan para hacer una solicitud cortés o pedir permiso a alguien.

El verbo ‘mente’ significa ‘estar preocupado o molesto’.

Ambas frases se pueden usar indistintamente con poca o ninguna diferencia de significado en tres situaciones diferentes.

1. To take someone’s permission

Cuando quieres hacer algo y compruebas si eso molesta o crea un problema para una persona, usamos ambas expresiones.

  • Would you mind if I sat here?

You basically want to sit next to a person, but you want to check if sitting there causes the person a problem.

Meaning: Is it okay with you if I sit here? Is it a problem with you?

NOTA: Con esta estructura, generalmente usamos el verbo en pasado ya que la oración completa es una segunda oración condicional. ‘Would’ en ‘le importaría’ se refiere a una situación incierta. El verbo también se puede usar en la forma base (V1). En la forma base, se refiere a un evento real o probable.

  • Would you mind if I sit you?

Algunos gramáticos consideran que esto es incorrecto ya que usamos el verbo en pasado en la segunda oración condicional. Pero aquí, ‘te importaría’ es una expresión fija y la gente usa ambas frases sin diferencia de significado. Dicho esto, aún así, deberías usar el verbo en pasado aquí.

Examples:

  • Would you mind if I went out with your girlfriend tonight?
  • Would you mind if I use your cell for a minute?
  • Would you mind if we sit here for a few minutes?
  • Would you mind if I called you in an hour?
  • Would you mind if I brought my friends to the party?
  • Would your parents mind if we organised a party at your place tonight?

The expression ‘do you mind’ can be used in these examples. It slightly changes the meaning of the sentence though.

Aquí hay dos cosas que marcan la diferencia:

  1. ‘Te importa’ es menos formal en comparación con ‘te importaría’. Por lo tanto, la gente a menudo usa este último.
  2. ‘Would’ se refiere a la incertidumbre en oraciones condicionales, y ‘do you mind’ es comparativamente más seguro.

Examples:

  • Do you mind If I sit here?
  • Do you mind if I sleep in your room?
  • Do you mind if I go out with your sister?
  • Do you mind if we celebrate his birthday here?

El verbo también se puede usar y se usa a menudo en tiempo pasado. En tiempo pasado, muestra incertidumbre.

  • Do you mind If I sat here?
  • Do you mind if I slept in your room?
  • Do you mind if I went out with your sister?

How to answer the questions starting with ‘would you mind’?

Si no tiene ningún problema con la solicitud que se le hizo, así es como puede responder las preguntas:

  • Absolutely not.
  • Not at all.
  • No, please …
  • No, you can …

Question: Would you mind If I sit here?

Answers (the person does not have a problem):

  • No, please have a seat.
  • Absolutely not.
  • Not at all.
  • No, you can sit here.

Si tiene un problema con la solicitud que se le hizo, así es como puede responder:

  • I am afraid you can’t.
  • Yes, I would.

Question: Would you mind If I sit here?

Answers (the person does have a problem)

  • I am afraid you can’t. Someone is sitting here already.
  • Yes, I would. Please sit somwhere else.

2. To request a person to perform an action for you. It’s basically a polite request.

Structure:

Would you mind + gerund phrase?
Do you mind + gerund phrase?

  • Would you mind passing that bottle?

There is a bottle next to the person, and you are requesting the person to pass the bottle to you in a polite way.

Examples:

  • Would you mind sharing your food with us?
  • Would you mind shifting a bit?
  • Would you mind clicking a picture of us?
  • Would you mind showing your project?
  • Would you mind holding my bag for a minute?

Here, we can replace ‘would you mind’ with ‘do you mind’ with no difference in meaning. Though, it is important to note that ‘would you mind’ is more formal and polite. Both expressions, here, have nothing to do with uncertainty.

  • Do you mind opening the door?
  • Do you mind picking up Riya in the evening?
  • Do you mind changing seats?
  • Do you mind smoking somewhere else?
  • Do you mind helping me with this project?

3. To order someone to do something or ask a question (often angrily).

Student: I don’t understand this (in a muffled voice).
Teacher: Would you mind standing up and repeating yourself?

The teacher orders the student to stand up and repeat themselves.

Examples:

  • Would you mind telling us why you’re late?
  • Do you mind leaving the class right now?
  • Would you mind stopping sticking your nose in my business?

Esta es una forma educada de mostrar tu enojo hacia alguien y exigirle que haga o deje de hacer algo. Tenga en cuenta que debe tener la autoridad para hablar de esta manera con alguien. De lo contrario, la persona puede ofenderse.

7 usos diferentes de SHOULD en inglés

7 usos diferentes de SHOULD en inglés

Should es un verbo auxiliar modal en inglés. Al igual que un verbo auxiliar, apoya o ayuda al verbo principal de una oración. En esta publicación, dominaremos diferentes usos de should en inglés.

How to use should in English?

Es uno de los verbos auxiliares modales más utilizados en inglés y se utiliza para los siguientes propósitos:

  • To make suggestions or give advice
  • To ask for a suggestion, an opinion, or advice
  • To give opinions
  • to talk about possible or expected actions/situations
  • To talk about duties/obligations
  • To use it in conditional sentences like IF
  • To regret over past actions

Use of Should in English

1. Use of should to give advice or to make a suggestion
A menudo usamos should para ofrecer una sugerencia o consejo cuando nos lo piden.

Examples:

  • You are amazing at teaching kids. You should apply for a teaching job.
  • They are fighting a lot these days. They should stop seeing each other for some time.
  • I think he should see a doctor now.
  • You should never think about making money; you should work on your skills.
  • Your sister should leave that guy. He does not love her and only wants her money.
  • We should have an online presence. That will give us more opportunities to expand our business.
  • You should probably call her and apologize for your rude behaviour.
  • He should probably leave her and find a better girl.
  • Rohan should probably get married now.
  • They shouldn’t be dependent on their families anymore. They should find a job.
  • You shouldn’t date that girl. She’s had a bad history of betraying boys.
  • You shouldn’t wear this dress for the meeting. It’s very appealing.
  • Max shouldn’t invest his money in their company. They are frauds.

2. Use of should to ask for a suggestion/advice
Cuando desee tomar las sugerencias u opiniones de alguien, use should.

Examples:

  • Should I quit my job? I am not happy with the people I am working with. But the monetary benefits are good.
  • My ex-girlfriend just called. What should I do now?
  • Do you think I should give her a chance?
  • Should I allow my brother to go on a date with her? I am not sure about it.
  • What should I buy for his birthday?
  • What should I wear to the party?

3. Use should to give opinions
Podemos usar should para dar opiniones: lo que creemos que es correcto o que alguien debería hacer.

Examples:

  • People should be more health-conscious.
  • If we want to live a peaceful life, I think we should meditate daily.
  • You have been working here for so long. The company should give you a hike.
  • The government should make marijuana legal in the country.
  • Daniel should get some respect after beating Jon the way he did.

4. Use of should to talk about possible and expected actions/situations (likely to happen)

  • The train should be at the station in 30 minutes.
  • The guests should be arriving anytime. Make all the arrangements.
  • The rooms don’t look very clean. The price should not be very high.
  • Let’s go to the coffee shop. He should be there with his friends.
  • The market should be crowded today. It’s a holiday.

5. Use of should to talk about obligations

Examples:

  • You should be here before 9 p.m.
  • We should finish the work before calling it a day.
  • You must be here before 9 p.m.
  • We must finish the work before calling it a day.

6. We can use SHOULD instead of IF in formal situations (condition).
Podemos usar should en lugar de IF en oraciones condicionales. El uso de debería en lugar de IF hace que la oración sea más formal. Aquí hay algunos ejemplos de debería como condicional:

  • Should you feel bored, you can watch movies on my laptop.
  • Should you need more information about these products, please visit our website or call our desk.
  • Should we not reach the office in time, we are in big trouble.
  • We will deliver the entire course in 20 days should you make the full payment in advance.

In these sentences, you can replace ‘should’ with ‘if.’

  • Should you feel bored, you can watch movies on my laptop.
  • Should you need more information about these products, please visit our website or call our desk.
  • If we do not reach the office in time, we are in big trouble.
  • We will deliver the entire course in 20 days if you make the full payment in advance.

7. Use of SHOULD in the past
Use should para hablar de algo (arrepentimiento por algo) que se hizo o no se hizo en el pasado.

  • You should have listened to me that day.
    (You didn’t listen to me that day.)
  • He shouldn’t have drunk so much last night. He embarrassed all of us.
    (He drank so much last night.)
  • I should have accepted his offer. His company is doing great today.
    (I didn’t accept his offer in the past.)

Uso de guiones en inglés: En Dash y Em dash

Uso de guiones en inglés: En Dash y Em dash

Un guión en inglés es una línea horizontal, más grande que un guión, que aparece en medio de una oración e indica una pausa o un descanso, o muestra un rango entre dos cosas. Hay una lección en video (sobre guiones) adjunta al final de la publicación; puede desplazarse directamente hacia abajo si lo desea.

Types of dashes in English

Hay dos tipos de guiones en inglés:

  1. Em dash
  2. En dash

Las funciones del guión corto y el guión largo son completamente diferentes, por lo que es importante dominarlas por separado.

Em dash

La puntuación em guión (—) es tan larga como la letra m. Es más largo que el guión corto (–). Usamos guiones largos para introducir un descanso o introducir una información en la que el escritor quiere centrarse.

Es uno de los signos de puntuación más versátiles del idioma inglés, ya que puede funcionar como una coma, dos puntos, paréntesis e incluso dos puntos. Veamos las diferentes situaciones en las que el guión largo está y se puede usar en una oración.

1. Use the em dash to introduce a pause in a sentence (just like a comma)
Use los guiones largos para hacer una pausa y agregar información adicional a una oración. Viene antes y después de la información adicional que se agrega a una oración.

Examples:

  • My father⁠—a wrestling coach⁠—has always got me what I wanted.
  • When the match finished—nearly around 10 pm—we decided to stay in the stadium and meet the players.
  • The only person I care about in the class—apart from you—is Jacob.

Tenga en cuenta que en las oraciones anteriores, los guiones largos se utilizan para insertar información adicional en las oraciones. Un par de comas y paréntesis pueden realizar la misma función.

  • My father, a wrestling coach, has always got me what I wanted.
  • My father (a wrestling coach) has always got me what I wanted.
  • When the match finished, nearly around 10 pm, we decided to stay in the stadium and meet the players.
  • When the match finished (nearly around 10 pm) we decided to stay in the stadium and meet the players.
  • The only person I care about in the class, apart from you, is Jacob.
  • The only person I care about in the class (apart from you) is Jacob.

2. Use the em dash to replace a colon to introduce something as a conclusion, justification, or summarization of the previous texts.
Generalmente, los dos puntos se usan para introducir algo en lo que desea enfocarse en una oración o una explicación de algo mencionado anteriormente. Pero el guión em puede reemplazar los dos puntos y hacer el mismo trabajo.

Examples:

  • Most people are striving for one thing in life: money.
  • Most people are striving for one thing in life—money.
  • He can’t join us today: his mother has fallen ill.
  • He can’t join us today—his mother has fallen ill.
  • Don’t forget to bring the items that we need to make the dish: milk, cheese, bread, and dark chocolate.
  • Don’t forget to bring the items that we need to make the dish—milk, cheese, bread, and dark chocolate.
  • We have planned some activities for the day: visiting the NGO, meeting the kids and the teachers, and giving them some books and food.
  • We have planned some activities for the day—visiting the NGO, meeting the kids and the teachers, and giving them some books and food.

3. Use the em dash to interrupt the flow of a sentence and drop some off topic information in it.

  • Jane shouted at the teacher—no one saw it coming—and left the class in hurry.
  • Last night was amazing. We sat along a beach, listened to some songs—look at me when I am talking to you— and talked about some funny childhood stories.

Tenga en cuenta que la información que viene dentro de los guiones em es extra; el escritor está insertando explicaciones o pensamientos posteriores dentro de los guiones largos (como hice yo aquí). Además, tenga en cuenta que podríamos usar paréntesis en lugar de guiones largos en estas oraciones.

  • Jane shouted at the teacher (no one saw it coming) and left the class in hurry.
  • Last night was amazing. We sat along a beach, listened to some songs (look at me when I am talking to you), and talked about some funny childhood stories.

4. Use the em dash to introduce a list (just like a colon).

  • We need three things to be successful in life: dedication, passion, and consistency.
  • We need three things to be successful in life—dedication, passion, and consistency.
  • I will never forget about happened on the trip: we lost our phones, Sam almost fell off the cliff, and we
  • had to sleep on the street for two nights.
  • I will never forget about happened on the trip—we lost our phones, Sam almost fell off the cliff, and we
  • had to sleep on the street for two nights.
  • They are learning 3 languages: English, Chinese, and Spanish.
  • They are learning 3 languages—English, Chinese, and Spanish.

Ahora, entendamos cómo hacer el guión corto en inglés.

En dash

The punctuation en dash smaller than the em dash and smaller than the hyphen. It is as long as the letter n in the English language.

1. Use the en dash to introduce a range of numbers, time, and dates.

  • The time 9–⁠10 pm is when I am available for the calls.
  • Every person in the company needs to work at least 30–⁠35 hours a week.
  • Chapters 5–⁠9 are the most important chapters in the book.
  • I will be back in 3–⁠5 days.
  • There were around 400–⁠500 people in the seminar.

NOTA: el guión corto aquí funciona como la preposición ‘desde’. Tenga en cuenta que si un rango comienza con la preposición ‘a’ o incluso con la preposición ‘entre’, el guión final se elimina.

  • I will be busy from 6pm–⁠9pm. ❌
  • Between March–⁠July, India is playing 3 test series. ❌
  • I will be busy from 6 pm to 9 pm. ✔️
  • Between March and ⁠July, India is playing 3 test series. ✔️

2. Use the en dash to report the result of a match or a contest.

  • India won the series 4–⁠1 and shocked the naysayers.
  • We beat SSCR 24–⁠11 in the last game.

3. To show a connection.

  • The India–⁠Canada flight takes 14 hours.
  • We can’t visit the India–⁠Pakistan border right now.

Clase magistral de adjetivo participio presente

Clase magistral de adjetivo participio presente

Esta lección nos ayuda a comprender qué es un adjetivo de participio presente y cómo usarlo correctamente en una oración.

What is a Present participle adjective?

Un adjetivo en participio presente es una forma ING de un verbo (V1+ING) que funciona como adjetivo.

  • It is a growing company.

The word ‘growing’ is modifying the noun ‘company’. It is a present participle that’s working as an adjective; it is telling us the state of the company.

Examples:

  • Everyone is here to see the burning train.
  • India is one of the developing countries in the world.
  • Look at the shinning car. It must be very expensive.
  • That was an inspiring speech. We all loved it.
  • You have put me in this confusing situation.
  • A smiling man is better than a crying man.
  • The movie was boring. Nobody liked it.
  • This entire situation is a bit overwhelming to me.

NOTA: Un participio presente también viene después del objeto de algunos verbos (generalmente verbos de percepción como ver, mirar, escuchar, observar, etc.)

  • We saw him eating your lunch.
  • I heard her crying.

Position of a Present participle adjective

Un adjetivo de participio presente puede tomar las siguientes posiciones en una oración:

  • Just before the noun it modifies
  • After a linking verb
  • Just after the noun it modifies

Estudiemos todos los casos por separado.

1. Just before the noun
Esta es la posición más común de un adjetivo de participio presente. El participio presente, aquí, se sienta justo antes de un sustantivo y da información sobre él.

Examples:

  • I appreciate the encouraging words.
  • The swimming pool is closed today.
  • I can’t do a teaching job.
  • It was an amazing match.

2. After a linking verb
Esta es también una posición común donde se coloca un adjetivo de participio presente en una oración.

Examples:

  • The fight coming up is really interesting.
  • You are outstanding.
  • This book is interesting. You should give it a read.
  • His story is very motivating.
  • This job should be exciting.

3. After a noun it modifies
Cuando un adjetivo de participio presente viene justo después de un sustantivo, a menudo es parte de una frase de participio presente.

Examples:

  • The man shouting there is my cousin.
  • Look at the guy sitting next to the tree.
  • The girl dancing on the stage is my sister.
  • People working with me are happy.
  • Nobody likes to talk with the man sitting on the rock alone.

Present participles that are often used as adjectives

  • Shocking
  • Demotivating
  • Tiring
  • Exhausting
  • Terrifying
  • Petrifying
  • Frightening
  • Confusing
  • Frustrating
  • Embarrassing
  • Depressing
  • Boring
  • Exciting
  • Thrilling
  • Motivating
  • Inspiring
  • Amusing
  • Overwhelming
  • Relaxing
  • Satisfying
  • Amazing
  • Interesting

Examples:

  • His story is shocking.
  • The book is really motivating.
  • That was one demotivating speech.
  • It was a tiring day.
  • Doing this job can be exhausting.
  • We can’t forget those petrifying visuals.
  • Talking to her again will be really embarrassing for me.
  • The movie that we watched last night was very depressing.
  • This case is getting confusing.
  • What an exciting match it was!
  • Your story is really inspiring.
  • Watching kids play is so satisfying.
  • Do you find it amusing?

FORMAS DE INFINITIVOS EN INGLÉS

FORMAS DE INFINITIVOS EN INGLÉS

Esta publicación lo ayuda a comprender las diferentes formas de un infinitivo y cuándo hacerlo.

Un infinitivo se usa a menudo en la forma presente (To + V1), también conocido como el infinitivo simple, pero también tiene otras formas.

What is an infinitive?

Un infinitivo es un verbo no finito que funciona como sustantivo, adjetivo o adverbio.

Examples:

  • To need to eat something. (working as the object of the verb ‘need’)
  • I need something to eat. (working as an adjective, modifying the pronoun ‘something’)
  • I went there to eat dinner. (working as an adverb, giving the reason of the action)

Now, let’s understand the different forms an infinitive has and how to use it.

The forms of an infinitive

Un infinitivo tiene las siguientes 4 formas:

  1. Simple (present) infinitive
  2. Continuous infinitive
  3. Perfect infinitive
  4. Perfect continuous infinitive

1. Simple infinitive

Un infinitivo simple es el infinitivo más usado en inglés. Como verbo no finito, se refiere a un tiempo presente o futuro. Se puede utilizar tanto en voz activa como en voz pasiva.

Examples:

  • Ashish wants to help the kids.
    Subject = Ashish
    Main verb = wants
    Infinitive (direct object) = to help
    Object of the infinitive = the kids
    ‘To help’ is the simple infinitive in the active voice. It works as the object of the verb ‘want’. The subject wants an action: to help the kids. The doer of the main verb (want) and the infinitive (help) is the same: Ashish. The subject wants something: an action that he himself does.
  • Ashish wants to be helped.
    Subject = Ashish
    Main verb = wants
    Infinitive (direct object) = to be helped
    The infinitive here is in the passive voice: to be helped. It is working as the object of the verb ‘want’. The subject ‘Ashish’ wants something: an action that he receives. He wants somebody to do something to him: help him.

Simple infinitive (active voice)
El infinitivo simple se usa en voz activa cuando la acción en infinitivo la realiza el sujeto o el objeto (generalmente el sujeto).

Structure: to + V1

Examples:

  • To go there alone is dangerous.
  • To rest is the only thing I want right now.
  • One of my talents is to mimic people.
  • The person to contact is Max.
  • They forced me to leave.
  • I order you to do it again.

Simple infinitive (passive voice)
Un infinitivo simple se usa en la voz pasiva cuando la acción en el infinitivo es recibida por el sujeto o el objeto (generalmente el sujeto).

Structure: to + be + past participle (V3)

Examples:

  • To be doubted works like a fuel sometimes.
  • I want to be respected. I deserve it.
  • I hate to be told what to do.
  • They need to be heard.
  • I chose to be beaten in that match.
  • Nobody deserved to be killed.
Simple infinitive (active) Simple infinitive (passive)
I want to love her. I want to be loved.
Sam hates to call at night. Sam hates to be called at night.
We were happy to help them. We were happy to be helped them.

2. Simple continuous infinitive

El infinitivo continuo simple se usa para referirse a un sustantivo (una acción) en el estado continuo. Solo se usa en la voz activa; no se puede usar en la forma pasiva.

Structure: to + be + present participle (V1+ING)

  • You are pretending to be sleeping.
    Subject = you
    Helping verb = are
    Main verb = pretending
    Direct object = to be sleeping

Meaning: You are pretending that you are sleeping.

‘To be sleeping’ is the object of the verb ‘pretending’. The subject is pretending something: an action that is going on.

Examples:

  • He seems to be crying.
  • I am happy to be working here.
  • You are pretending to be sleeping.
  • Are you denying to be talking to Jacob right now?

3. Perfect infinitive

El infinitivo perfecto se usa para referirse a un tiempo pasado. Se puede utilizar tanto en voz activa como en voz pasiva.

  • He is pretending to have copied your assignment.
    Subject = He
    Helping verb = is
    Main verb = pretending
    Direct object (infinitive) = to have copied
    Object of the infiitive = your assignment

Here, the subject is denying something (an action) that happened in the past. The perfect infinitive here is working as the object of the verb ‘pretending’. And note that it is in the active voice. The doer of the infinitive is the subject.

Alternative: He is pretending that he copied your assignment.

I am pretending to have been contacted by them.

Here, the perfect infinitive refers to a past action, and the subject here receives the action. The infinitive is in the passive voice.

Alternative: I am denying that I had been contacted by them.
Alternative: I am denying that they had contacted me.

Perfect infinitive (active voice)
El infinitivo perfecto se refiere a un tiempo pasado y la acción (infinitivo) es realizada por el sujeto o el objeto. El infinitivo se refiere a una actividad que terminó antes que el verbo principal.

Structure: to + have + past participle (V3)

Examples:

  • I am happy to have done this. (I am happy about an action that I did in the past.)
  • He admitted to have robbed the shop. (He admitted that he had robbed the bank.)
  • You are just pretending to have watched this movie. (You are pretending that you have watched this movie.)

Perfect infinitive (passive voice)
El infinitivo perfecto se usa en voz pasiva para referirse a una acción pasada realizada sobre el sujeto o el objeto.

Structure: to + have + been + past participle (V3)

Examples:

  • I am happy to have been selected for the trip. (I am happy that I have been selected for the trip.)
  • She is claiming to have been molested. (She is claiming that she has been molested.)
  • He was pretending to have been cheated. (He was pretending that he had been cheated.)

4. Perfect continuous infinitive

El infinitivo continuo perfecto se usa para referirse a una acción (no finita) que continuó durante algún tiempo en el pasado o una acción que comenzó en el pasado y continúa en el presente. Solo se usa en la voz activa.

Structure: to + have + been + present participle (V1+ing)

  • You were pretending to have been sleeping.
    Subject = you
    Helping verb = were
    Main verb = pretending
    Object = to have been sleeping
    Meaning: You were pretending that you had been sleeping.

‘To have been sleeping’ is the perfect continuous infinitive that is working as the object of the verb ‘pretending’ and referring to an action that was continuing for some time in the past.

Examples:

  • You seem to have been drinking for some hours.
  • I am happy to have been working here.
  • We were glad to have been living there.
  • He pretended to have been working all day.
Types of infinitives Active voice Passive voice
Simple infinitive 1. I want to sleep.
2. To do this is difficult.
1. I want to be respected.
2. To be paid well is what I want.
Simple continuous infinitive 1. He refused to be working.
2. I am happy to be doing this.
NOT USED
Perfect infinitive 1. He was pretending to have taken the shot.
2. I am happy to have written this book.
1. He was pretending to have been selected for the trip.
2. I am happy to have been considered for the job.
Perfect continuous infinitive 1. He seems to have been doing it for some time.
2. We are glad to have been coming here.
NOT USED

FAQs

1. What is an infinitive?
Un infinitivo es la forma ‘TO + V1’ de un verbo que funciona como sustantivo, adjetivo o adverbio.

2. How many types of infinitives we have in English?
Tenemos 6 tipos de infinitivos en inglés:

  1. Simple infinitive active voice
  2. Simple infinitive passive voice
  3. Simple continuous infinitive
  4. Perfect infinitive active voice
  5. Perfect infinitive passive voice
  6. Perfect continuous infinitive

3. What are the 4 types of infinitives?
Un infinitivo tiene cuatro formas según el tiempo al que se refiere en una oración. Estos son los cuatro tipos de infinitivos que tenemos en inglés: el infinitivo simple, el infinitivo continuo simple, el infinitivo perfecto y el infinitivo continuo perfecto

4. How do you write infinitive form?
Un infinitivo en la forma simple se forma usando la partícula ‘TO’ y el verbo en la forma base ‘V1’. Ejemplos: dormir, bailar, enseñar, cantar, etc.

5. How do you identify an infinitive?
Hay dos cosas que nos ayudan a identificar un infinitivo en una oración. Lo primero es su apariencia. Se forma usando un participio ‘TO’ y un verbo en la forma base ‘V1’. Lo segundo es su función; un infinitivo funciona como un sustantivo, adjetivo o adverbio.

  • I like to sing. (noun)
  • He is the right guy to marry. (adjective)
  • I am doing this to help students. (adverb)

The infinitive can be in other forms (mentioned above) too.

Clase magistral de complemento de adjetivo

Clase magistral de complemento de adjetivo

Esta lección te ayuda a comprender qué es un complemento de adjetivo y cómo usarlo correctamente en una oración.Esta lección te ayuda a comprender qué es un complemento de adjetivo y cómo usarlo correctamente en una oración.

What is an Adjective complement?

Un complemento de adjetivo es una frase o una cláusula que completa el significado de un adjetivo al dar más información sobre él. La información ayuda a los lectores u oyentes a comprender mejor la situación. Entonces, la información que proporciona es necesaria para completar el significado del adjetivo.

Puntos a tener en cuenta:

  1. Un complemento adjetivo es más que una palabra: una frase o una cláusula.
  2. Viene justo al lado de un adjetivo.
  3. Se sienta justo al lado de un adjetivo.

Types of adjective complement

Las siguientes 3 cosas pueden funcionar como un complemento adjetivo en una oración:

  1. Prepositional phrase
  2. Infinitive phrase
  3. Noun clause

Prepositional phrase as an adjective complement

Una frase preposicional a menudo funciona como un complemento adjetivo en una oración. Como complemento de adjetivo, se sienta al lado de un adjetivo y proporciona más información sobre el adjetivo. Esta información que proporciona ayuda a los lectores u oyentes a comprender mejor el contexto.

Las frases preposicionales se forman usando una preposición y su objeto (sustantivo, frase nominal, cláusula nominal, pronombre).

  • I am not happy with your performance.

Here, ‘with your performance’ is a prepositional phrase that’s working as an adjective complement. It’s coming next to the adjective ‘happy’ and giving useful information about it. If we ended the sentence with the adjective happy, we wouldn’t have more clarity about the sentence. We wouldn’t know what the speaker is unhappy with.

Examples:

  • I am concerned about your health.
  • We are happy about what happened last night.
  • Sam is dedicated to this project.
  • The management is disappointed with your actions.
  • Sneha is scared of dogs.
  • Some of them are still mad at you.
  • It is dark in the dining room.
  • He is great at public speaking.
  • You should never be satisfied with what you have.
  • We are really excited about Jon’s wedding.
  • Jon is very kind to all of us.

Nota: Quitar las frases preposicionales de estas oraciones cambia el significado de las oraciones ya que las oraciones, ahora, tienen menos información (necesaria).

Infinitive phrase as an adjective complement

Cuando una frase en infinitivo funciona como complemento de un adjetivo, habla de la razón del adjetivo (estado).

Un infinitivo en inglés es la forma ‘TO + V1’ de un verbo que funciona como sustantivo, adjetivo o adverbio. Una frase en infinitivo tiene un infinitivo y su objeto, o modificador, o ambos.

  • I am happy to see you again.

‘To see you again’ is an infinitive phrase that’s coming next to the adjective ‘happy’ and telling us the reason for this state of existence. It completes the meaning of the adjective by telling us why the speaker is happy.

If it weren’t there, we wouldn’t know why the speaker is happy. This completely changes the meaning of the sentence.

Examples:

  • We are excited to attend the party.
  • His family and friends were devastated to hear the news of his death.
  • I am delighted to see you again.
  • They were shocked to see me alive.
  • Nancy was scared to lose me.
  • I was not hesitant to leave the job for my values.
  • It is absolutely silly to argue with them.
  • We aren’t eager to be invited to the show.
  • I am very fortunate to know you.

Noun clause as an adjective complement

Una cláusula nominal es una cláusula dependiente que funciona como un sustantivo en una oración. Las cláusulas nominales a menudo comienzan con las siguientes conjunciones subordinadas: qué, quién, quién, eso, dónde, por qué, cuándo y cómo.

Pero tenga en cuenta que las cláusulas nominales, aquí, no funcionan como un sustantivo; simplemente dan información sobre un adjetivo y completan su significado.

  • It is evident that she is angry with us.

Here, the noun clause is giving more information about the adjective ‘evident’ and telling us what is evident. It actually shouldn’t be called a noun clause here as it’s functioning as a noun; it is functioning as a modifier: giving information about an adjective.

Examples:

  • It is disappointing that you are still working there.
  • It is evident that she is dying.
  • I am delighted that all my students have passed the exams.
  • We were shocked when he came back to our team.
  • It is amazing how you communicate with snakes.
  • We are excited that Virat is back on the team.
  • She is curious what her gift will be.
  • Ron seemed disappointed when the results came out.
  • It is shocking how she survived the onslaught.
  • Tina is so happy that she is back home.
  • You seem confident that colleges will be closed tomorrow.

Modifier vs Adjective complement

Un modificador regular (adverbio) que modifica un adjetivo es un poco diferente de un complemento de adjetivo. Un adverbio que modifica un adjetivo simplemente intensifica o mitiga el significado de un adjetivo, mientras que un complemento de adjetivo proporciona más detalles sobre el adjetivo y completa su significado con información esencial. Un complemento adjetivo es importante para dar el significado correcto.

  • I am very happy. (very = modifier)
    The adverb ‘very’ is modifying the adjective ‘happy’ and intensifying its meaning. Its presence does make a huge difference in the sentence.
  • I am happy to see you again. (to see you again = adjective complement)
    The adjective complement is giving information about the adjective ‘happy’ and completing its meaning by telling us the reason for the state of the subject.

INFINITIVOS BARE en inglés

INFINITIVOS BARE en inglés

Esta publicación lo ayuda a comprender qué es un infinitivo simple, cómo y cuándo usarlo en una oración correctamente.

What is an infinitive in English?

Un infinitivo es ‘TO + V1’ de un verbo que funciona como sustantivo, adjetivo o adverbio. Es un verbo no finito, lo que significa que no cambia por y el tiempo de la oración.

Examples:

  • I need to sleep. (noun)
  • All we want is to drink something. (noun)
  • The person to meet there is Rahul. (adjective, modifying the noun ‘person’)
  • We need something to drink. It’s getting hot in here. (adjective, modifying the noun ‘something’)
  • We are going there to meet Jacob. (adverb, giving the reason of the main verb ‘going’)
  • It is important to sleep now. (adverb, modifying the adjective ‘important’)

What is a bare infinitive?

Un infinitivo simple, también conocido como infinitivo cero, es un infinitivo que no tiene la partícula TO en él.

Examples:

  • I made her take the test.
  • We should leave now.
  • You had better go home. It’s getting dark.
  • I would rather kill myself than marry her.

We use the bare infinitive in the following cases:

  • After certain causative verbs and verbs of perception
  • After modal verbs
  • After ‘had better’ and ‘would rather’
  • After certain prepositions

After certain causative verbs and verbs of perception

Usamos un infinitivo simple después de los siguientes verbos: make, let, see, hear, watch, help, etc.

Examples:

  • I made him say sorry to her.
  • My father does not let me smoke.
  • Did anyone watch us steal the money?
  • She did not hear us talk about the crime.
  • I helped you win the match.
  • I saw him play in the park.

Note que estos verbos son seguidos por un objeto (una persona). El infinitivo simple viene después del objeto, y también tenga en cuenta que el objeto realiza la acción del infinitivo simple.

After modal verbs

Estos son los verbos modales junto a los infinitivos básicos: can, could, may, might, should, would, will, shall, must, and needn’t.

Examples:

  • You should go now.
  • Jon must work on his communication skills.
  • I can beat anyone.
  • You needn’t come tomorrow. (You are not required to come tomorrow.)
  • I can beat anyone.
  • She might now join us today.

Los verbos que se usan después de los verbos modales se llaman infinitivos simples, ya que no cambian su número o tiempo con respecto al cambio en el número o el tiempo del sujeto. Entonces, en realidad están funcionando como un verbo no finito. Por esta lógica, es justo llamarlos verbos no finitos (infinitivos desnudos).

Pero, ¿cómo podemos formar una oración sin tener el verbo principal (verbo finito)? El verbo modal funciona como un verbo auxiliar. Una oración no se puede formar con un verbo auxiliar; tiene que tener un verbo principal (verbo finito) después de él. Pero ese no es el caso aquí. Tenemos un verbo (acción) después del verbo auxiliar, pero lo llamamos un infinitivo simple. Un infinitivo se forma a partir de un verbo, pero no funciona como verbo. Entonces, la aplicación del infinitivo simple es un poco extraña y controvertida, al menos para mí.

After the verbs ‘had better’ and ‘would rather’.

Las expresiones ‘tendría mejor’ y ‘preferiría’ van seguidas de un simple infinitivo.

Examples:

  • You had better take this offer; it will change your life.
  • We’d better leave early. We might miss the flight.
  • He had better start working on his communication skills.
  • I would rather kill myself than marry her.
  • She’d rather sit jobless than work with you.
  • I’d would rather die than eat this.

HAD BETTER

La expresión ‘mejor’ se usa para dar un consejo/sugerencia. Se usa para referirse a una acción en el presente o en el futuro, que es deseable, o deberíamos hacer. ‘Had’ a veces se contrae con el sujeto.

I had better = I’d better
You had better = you’d better

WOULD RATHER

La expresión “preferiría” se usa para mostrar lo que alguien prefiere. ‘Would’ se puede contraer con el sujeto.

I would rather = I’d rather
We would rather = we’d rather

After the words BUT and except

Para algunos gramáticos, es extraño usar un simple infinitivo después de estas palabras. Pero algunos dicen que es gramatical usar el infinitivo simple después de ellos.

Examples:

  • I had no option but pay them.
  • He does nothing except play games on his PC.

Note that it is more common to use a regular infinitive after ‘but’ and a gerund after ‘except’.

  • I had no option but to pay them. (infinitive)
  • He does nothing except playing games on his PC. (gerund)

Consejos para escribir un ensayo persuasivo

Consejos para escribir un ensayo persuasivo

Si eres estudiante, es probable que ya hayas escrito un ensayo persuasivo al menos una vez. Si no, seguramente tendrás que hacerlo una y otra vez a lo largo de tu viaje académico. Es el tipo de tarea que a los profesores universitarios en los EE. UU., el Reino Unido y en todo el mundo (ya sea que se hable inglés allí o no) les encanta dar a sus estudiantes. Y con razón, sin importar lo que termines haciendo en la vida, definitivamente tendrás que persuadir a las personas que no comparten tus opiniones. Entonces, si desea convertirse en un escritor persuasivo superior, consulte estos consejos útiles.

Choose the topic you’re genuinely interested in

Los estudiantes no siempre pueden decidir qué tema elegir para sus ensayos. Pero si lo hace, elija sabiamente: nada es más aburrido o menos inspirador que un tema aleatorio que se le ocurrió un minuto antes de comenzar su artículo. En su lugar, considera las cosas que te importan y elige la que sepas lo suficiente como para sonar competente y convincente. Si siente que no puede pensar en nada lo suficientemente interesante, consulte las listas de temas en el servicio CustomWritings o cualquier compañía de redacción de ensayos en línea que pueda encontrar.

Elegir un tema no se trata solo de pasión. Tenga en cuenta que probablemente tendrá que investigar mucho y encontrar servicios académicos y profesionales para respaldar sus argumentos. Si elige algo oscuro, mal investigado o que no se puede buscar en Google, estará en problemas. Lo que es más importante, asegúrese de que su tema sea tanto controvertido como original. Incluso si se trata de algo muy popular, por ejemplo, el control de armas, piense en un aspecto que le dé la oportunidad de escribir un artículo que sea al menos algo único y personalizado. De lo contrario, no tendrás nada que hacer más que reafirmar las ideas de otros escritores, y de eso no se trata escribir desde cero.

Understand who your audience is

Piensa en la audiencia a la que estás tratando de persuadir. Lo que es un buen argumento para algunos puede no parecer del todo convincente para otros. Así que necesitas entender quién va a leer tu ensayo. Esto significa que dependiendo de si se lo enviarás a tu profesor o lo leerás como un discurso a tus compañeros de clase, te basarás en diferentes estrategias retóricas y utilizarás diferentes pruebas. Para decidir cómo debe ser su ensayo, responda estas preguntas:

  • ¿Quién es mi lector?
  • ¿Qué es probable que los haga estar de acuerdo conmigo?
  • ¿Cómo puedo mantener su atención a lo largo de mi trabajo?
  • ¿Ya están de mi lado o necesito convencerlos?
  • ¿Apreciarán más la evidencia contundente o el atractivo emocional?

Una vez que las hayas respondido, piensa en lo que significan las respuestas para tu ensayo. Intentar imaginar a tu lector también ayuda.

Decide which side you’re on

Cuando elige un tema, probablemente sepa hacia qué lado del debate gravita. Este es un buen punto de partida. Una vez más, su escritura debe ser apasionada para que su trabajo persuada a cualquiera. Sin embargo, hay otras cosas a considerar también. Todos tenemos nuestras creencias y opiniones (lo cual es genial). Pero el problema es que si los suyos son demasiado impopulares, es posible que tenga dificultades para encontrar evidencia que los respalde. Así que elige tu lado sabiamente.

Una vez que sepas sobre lo que vas a escribir, haz una investigación preliminar. Por ejemplo, debe escribir un artículo sobre si East of Eden de Steinbeck es o no la mejor novela estadounidense de todos los tiempos. Siéntase libre de pedir artículos de bases de datos académicas y servicios de biblioteca, comprar uno o dos libros baratos y encontrar un montón de reseñas en un sitio web relevante para asegurarse de que no es la única persona en el universo que piensa como usted. Luego puede escribir su propia reseña solo por el gusto de hacerlo. Es genial ser un pensador independiente, pero aún necesita un par de escritores expertos que piensen lo mismo para que pueda citarlos en su ensayo. Lo mismo ocurre con cualquier tema que se te ocurra.

But research both

Si desea escribir un artículo de calidad, dedique una buena cantidad de tiempo a investigar la posición opuesta. Eso es lo que hacen todas las empresas de marketing antes de diseñar sus propias campañas personalizadas para mostrar a sus clientes por qué son las mejores. Debe comprender lo que piensan las personas que piensan de manera diferente para que pueda desacreditar sus argumentos. Puede tener tanta confianza en su punto de vista como sea posible. Pero no cometas el error fatal de subestimar a tus oponentes. No importa cuán diferente sea su posición, sigue siendo válida. Y necesitas saberlo.

Haz que tu lector vea que entiendes a lo que te enfrentas. Trate de pedirle ayuda a su profesor con un esquema. Pero incluso si no le brindan un esquema formal o pautas para la estructura del documento, dedique uno o dos párrafos para abordar los argumentos de sus oponentes. Demostrarás que eres lo suficientemente inteligente y de mente abierta para ver la lógica de los demás a pesar de no estar de acuerdo con ella.

Tu papel debería verse más o menos así:

1. Introducción. Aquí le presentas al lector el tema, brindas todos los antecedentes necesarios y expones tu posición.

2. Cuerpo principal

  • Argumento en apoyo de su posición #1
  • Argumento en apoyo de su posición #2
  • Argumento en apoyo de su posición #3
  • Desacreditar la posición de tus oponentes

3.Conclusión

Claro, la cantidad de párrafos puede variar dependiendo de qué tan largo se supone que debe ser su artículo y cuántas ideas tiene. Pero el reconocimiento del lado opuesto no es opcional, sin importar lo que realmente pienses al respecto. Sea persistente pero manténgase respetuoso.

In place of a conclusion

Básicamente, la escritura persuasiva se trata de tres cosas: pasión, investigación y empatía. Necesitas pasión para hablar de algo que te parece importante. La investigación es clave para sonar competente y tener suficientes datos detrás de sus declaraciones. Finalmente, la empatía te ayudará a diseccionar la posición de tus oponentes con maestría. Piense en estos consejos cada vez que tenga que escribir documentos persuasivos y se convertirá en un verdadero profesional en muy poco tiempo.