Clase magistral de Premodificadores y Postmodificadores

Clase magistral de Premodificadores y Postmodificadores

Esta lección te ayuda a comprender qué son los premodificadores y los posmodificadores y cómo usarlos correctamente en una oración.

What is a modifier?

Un modificador es una palabra, frase o cláusula que da información sobre algo en una oración. Generalmente es un adjetivo o un adverbio. Un adjetivo modifica un sustantivo y un adverbio modifica un verbo, un adjetivo o un adverbio.

  • He is a smart man.
    The word ‘smart’ is working as an adjective here; it is modifying the noun ‘man’.
  • Jon runs fast.
    The word ‘fast’ is working as an adverb here; it is modifying the verb ‘runs’, telling us the manner of the action.
  • Jon is extremely smart.
    The word ‘extremely’ is working as an adverb here, modifying the adjective ‘smart’.
  • Jon runs very fast.
    Here, both ‘fast’ and ‘very’ are adverbs. The word ‘fast’ is modifying the verb ‘runs’ and the adverb ‘very’ is modifying the adverb ‘fast’, telling us the intensity of the action.

Los modificadores se dividen en dos categorías según su ubicación en la oración:

  1. Premodifiers
  2. Post modifiers

Los premodificadores y los posmodificadores se usan en frases nominales para modificar el encabezado (sustantivo) de la frase nominal. Una frase nominal se compone de un sustantivo y modificadores anteriores y posteriores.

Premodifiers

Premodifiers

Los premodificadores son palabras que van antes de un sustantivo y dan información sobre él. Tenemos tres cosas en pre-modificadores:

  1. Determiners
  2. Numbers
  3. Adjectives

A) Determiners

Los determinantes son palabras que determinan la cantidad de un sustantivo o indican a qué sustantivo se refiere el hablante. Los determinantes incluyen lo siguiente:

  • Articles = a, an, the
  • Possessive adjectives = my your, his, her, their, our, its
  • Demonstrative adjectives = this, that, these, those
  • Distributive adjectives = each, Every, either, neither, any, both, etc
  • Quantifiers = Some, many, a few, the few, a lot of, several, etc
Premodifiers Meaning Examples
Articles a, an = refers to an unspecified
singular countable nounthe = refers to a specified
singular countable noun
This is a book.
I don’t have an apple.
The movie was great.
Possessive adjectives refers to the possession of a noun My house is not as big as yours.
I love your dog.
You can’t question his loyalty.
Demonstrative adjectives refers to a noun that is close
or far away from the speaker
Don’t touch this box.
They are planning to cut that tree.
These candies are delicious.
Do you know those people?
Distributive adjectives refers to members of a group separately You can take either box.
Neither team deserved to win the match.
Every team played well.
Quantifiers to talk about the number of
the noun
Bring some books to read.
I have a few friends to meet.
Many people are waiting to see me fall.
There is a lot of money in this.

Nota: los textos en rojo son frases nominales. Tiene un sustantivo y un determinante.

B) Numbers

Los números incluyen números cardinales y ordinales. También dan información sobre un sustantivo; hablan de la cantidad exacta (número) del sustantivo que modifican.

one, two, three first, second, third…

Examples:

  • Simra has two cars.
  • I bought 5 laptops last month.
  • This is my first trip to Auli.
  • She was his second wife.

Nota: Los números se consideran parte de los cuantificadores únicamente. Pero los mantenemos separados ya que se refieren a cantidades específicas.

C) Adjectives

Los adjetivos son palabras que describen un sustantivo. Aquí hay algunos adjetivos comunes en inglés: good, bad, smart, beautiful, foolish, rich, poor, intelligent, dumb, wise, ugly, tall, huge, talented, kind, cruel, short, fat, slim, etc.

Examples:

  • It is a big hotel. We all can stay here.
  • He is a tall man.
  • We need some talented people to run our business.
  • You are an old fighter.

Other types of adjectives

  • Present participle adjective
  • Past participle adjective
  • Noun adjective

Examples:

  • It is an exciting movie to watch. (present participle = exciting)
  • This is a motivating story. (present participle = motivating)
  • A motivated man can do anything. (past participle = motivated)
  • They need a written apology. (past participle = written)
  • Neha got me a leather bag. (noun that’s working as an adjective)
  • It is an action movie. (noun that’s working as an adjective)

Position of premodifiers

Use dos o más modificadores previos en la siguiente estructura: Determiners + Numbers + Adjectives + Noun

Examples:

  • Look at those three huge trees in his backyard.
  • We can’t eat these many dark chocolates.

NOTA: No podemos usar dos o más tipos de determinantes en una frase nominal.

  • A this man
  • My this car

But we do use the following structure: quantifiers + OF + possessive adjective + noun

  • Some of my friends
  • None of your projects
  • One of his students

Examples:

  • Some of my friends will stay here.
  • They didn’t like none of your proects.
  • We are talking about one of his students.

NOTA: la combinación de uno o más premodificadores y el sustantivo al que modifica se llama frase nominal. Un sintagma nominal se puede formar de tres maneras diferentes:

  • Premodifier/s + noun
  • Noun + postmodifier/s
  • Premodifier/s + noun + postmodifier/s

Postmodifiers

Los posmodificadores son palabras que van después de un sustantivo y dan información sobre él. Hay 6 cosas que vienen en los post-modificadores:

  1. Prepositional phrases
  2. Present participle phrases
  3. Past participle phrases
  4. Infinitive phrases
  5. Relative/Adjective clauses
  6. Appositives

Todos ellos se llaman posmodificadores porque van justo después del sustantivo que modifican.

Prepositional phrase

Una frase preposicional comienza con una preposición y es seguida por el objeto de la preposición. Cuando una frase de preposición viene justo después de un sustantivo y lo modifica, lo llamamos posmodificador.

Prepositional phrase

Examples:

  • The house across the street is believed to be haunted.
    Noun phrase = the house across the street
    Premodifiers = the
    Noun = house
    Postmodifier = across the street (prepositional phrase)
    Here, the prepositional phrase ‘across the street’ modifies the noun ‘house‘ and tells us which house we are referring to in the sentence.
  • The guy in the blue shirt is my neighbor.
    Noun phrase = the guy in the blue shirt
    Premodifiers = the
    Noun = guy
    Postmodifier = in the blue shirt (prepositional phrase)
    Which guy is my neighbor? The prepositional phrase ‘in the blue shirt’ identifies the noun guy. Not any guy present there is my neighbor; the guy in the blue shirt is my neighbor.
  • They are writing a movie about his life.
    Noun phrase = a movie about his life
    Premodifiers = the
    Noun = man
    Postmodifier = about his life (prepositional phrase)
    The prepositional phrase ‘about his life‘ modifies the noun ‘movie’ and helps us to understand which movie the speaker is talking about writing. It is starting with the preposition ‘about’ and is followed by the object of the preposition his life.

Present participle phrase

Una frase de participio presente comienza con un participio presente (un verbo que termina en ‘ING’), se sienta junto a un sustantivo y lo modifica.

  • I was talking about the man sitting next to your sister.
    Noun phrase = the man sitting next to your sister
    Premodifiers = the
    Noun = man
    Postmodifier = sitting next to your sister (present participle phrase)
    The present participle phrase (in red) is coming next to and modifying the noun ‘man’. It is working as an adjective.

Tenga en cuenta que una frase de participio presente es una frase adjetiva reducida.

  • I was talking about the man sitting next to your sister. (present participle phrase)
  • I was talking about the man who is sitting next to your sister. (adjective clause)

More examples:

  • The man talking to Amy is a professional singer.
  • I will talk to the students protesting outside the college.
  • Nobody likes to talk with the man sitting on the rock alone.

Past participle phrase

Una frase de participio pasado comienza con un participio pasado (V3), se sienta al lado de un sustantivo y lo modifica.

  • We have come here to see the boy injured in the attack.
    Noun phrase = the boy injured in the attack
    Premodifier = the (article)
    Noun = boy
    Postmodifier = injured in the attack (past participle phrase)
    Here, the past participle phrase is identifying the noun ‘boy’ and giving essential information for us to identify him.

Tenga en cuenta que una frase de participio pasado es una frase adjetiva reducida.

  • We have come here to see the boy injured in the attack. (past participle phrase)
  • We have come here to see the boy who was injured in the attack. (adjective clause)

Examples:

  • The man taken to the police station is a terrorist.
  • The actor approached for this role is busy with his own project right now.
  • They are still searching for the bike stolen from this park last month.

Infinitive phrases

Un grupo de palabras que comienza con un infinitivo y funciona como sustantivo, adjetivo o adverbio se llama frase en infinitivo. Como modificador de publicación, funciona como adjetivo; viene justo después de un sustantivo y lo modifica.

  • The guy to learn SEO from is Mangesh Kumar Bhardwaj.
    Noun phrase = the guy to learn SEO from
    Premodifier = the
    Noun = guy
    Postmodifier = to learn SEO from (infinitive phrase)
    ‘To learn SEO from’ is an infinitive phrase that’s modifying the noun ‘guy’.
  • We are looking for a house to buy.
    Noun phrase = a house to buy
    Premodifier = a
    Noun = house
    Postmodifier = to buy (infinitive)
    ‘To buy’ is an infinitive that’s working as a postmodifier in the noun phrase. It is giving information about the noun ‘house’.

Examples:

  • I wish I had someone to stand by me.
  • This is the best way to learn English.
  • I need a book to read in my free time.

Adjective clauses
Una cláusula adjetiva es una cláusula dependiente que se encuentra junto a un sustantivo/pronombre y brinda información al respecto.

  • I love the book that my father gifted me on my last birthday.
    Noun phrase = the book that my father gifted me on my last birthday
    Noun = book
    Premodifier = the
    Postmodifier = that my father gifted me on my last birthday (adjective clause)
    ‘That my father gifted me on my last birthday‘ is the adjective clause that’s sitting next to the noun book and modifying it. An adjective clause is also called a relative clause as it starts with a relative pronoun.

Examples:

  • I don’t know anyone who can teach you boxing.
  • People who can control their minds live a highly successful life.
  • We are looking for a place where we party peacefully.

Appositives
Un apositivo es un sustantivo o una frase nominal que viene después de un sustantivo y lo renombra.

  • Her roommate Sofia Charles does not talk to people politely.
    Noun phrase = her roommate Sofia Charles
    Noun = roommate
    Postmodifier = Sofia Charles
    ‘Sofia Charles’ is the postmodifier (a noun) that’s coming next to the noun ‘roommate’ and renaming it.

Examples:

  • My friends Mangesh and Archit help me with everything I do.
  • My history teacher Jon Morley is getting married next week.

There are two types of appositives in English:

  1. Essential Appositives
  2. Nonessential Appositives

Tenga en cuenta que solo los apositivos esenciales funcionan como posmodificadores; los apositivos no esenciales se compensan con comas, ya que brindan información adicional sobre el sustantivo al que siguen.

Essential appositive: My history teacher Jon Morley is getting married next week.
Nonessential appositive: Jon Morley, my history teacher, is getting married next week.

Noun phrases using Premodifiers and Postmodifiers

Los premodificadores y los posmodificados forman parte de un sintagma nominal; se forma un sintagma nominal usándolos.

1. Noun phrases using premodifiers

  • Give me some fresh mangoes
    Noun phrase = some fresh mangoes
    Premodifiers = some, fresh
  • Go and bring those five muscular boys.
    Noun phrase = those five muscular boys
    Premodifiers = those, five, muscular

2. Noun phrases using postmodifiers

Noun phrases using postmodifiers

  • People protesting outside the house are not from this area.
    Noun phrase = people protesting outside the house
    Postmodifier = protesting outside the house (present participle phrase)
  • I love men in uniform.
    Noun phase = men in uniform
    Postmodifier = in uniform (prepositional phrase)

3. Noun phrases using both premodifiers and postmodifiers

  • The Chinese cupset that you gifted me last week has been broken.
    Noun phrase = the Chinese cupset that you gifted me last week
    Premodifier = the, Chinese
    Postmodifier = that you gifted me last week
  • Look at those black dogs across the bridge.
    Noun phrase = those black dogs across the bridge
    Premodifier = those, black
    Postmodifier = across the bridge

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El tiempo presente continuo, también conocido como tiempo presente progresivo, habla de las acciones que alguien está haciendo en el presente.

Active and passive voice of the Present Continuous tense

Active voice: Subject (doer) + is/am/are + V1+ing + object
Passive voice: The object (receiver of the action) + is/am/are + being + V3 + (by the doer)

Active: She is taking a class.
(she = doer of the action, is = helping verb = taking = main verb, a class = receiver of the action)

Passive: A class is being taken by her.
(a class = the new subject, is being = helping verb = taking = main verb)

En la voz activa del Presente Continuo, nos enfocamos en la persona que está realizando una acción actualmente en el presente.

En la voz pasiva del presente continuo, nos enfocamos en el objeto (el receptor de la acción) que está recibiendo la acción en el presente. El tiempo verbal se forma usando “is/am/are + being + V3”.

Examples:

  • Active voice: Ashish is teaching English at this university.
  • Passive voice: English is being taught by Ashish at this university.
  • Active voice: They are making a movie about me.
  • Passive voice: A movie about me is being made (by them).
  • Active voice: A robot is serving food in this hotel.
  • Passive voice: Food is being served by a robot in this hotel.
  • Active voice: They are taking interviews for different posts.
  • Passive voice: Interviews are being taken for different posts (by them).
  • Active voice: The police are interrogating him right now.
  • Passive voice: He is being interrogated (by the police right now).
  • Active voice: Everybody is watching the final match.
  • Passive voice: The final match is being watched by everyone.
  • Active voice: Who is helping you in your project?
  • Passive voice: Who are you being helped by in this project?
  • Active voice: Ron is not training the kids.
  • Passive voice: The kids are not being trained (by Ron).
  • Active voice: Are they playing cricket right now?
  • Passive voice: Is cricket being played by them right now?
  • Active voice: Why is he not helping us?
  • Passive voice: Why are we not being helped by him?

NOTA: el verbo auxiliar (is/am/are) puede ser diferente en la voz activa y pasiva de una oración. La voz activa (verbo) sigue al que realiza la acción, y la voz pasiva (verbo) sigue al receptor de la acción.

En la voz pasiva, el autor de la acción, por lo general, no se menciona ya que el foco está en el receptor de la acción. Ocurre cuando el tema es menos importante, entendido o innecesario de mencionar.

Examples:

  • His interview is being taken.
  • The final match is being played at Wankhede Stadium.
  • The next video is being recorded.
  • Students are being punished for tricking the class teacher.
  • Some people are being arrested on the road.

Tenga en cuenta que en los ejemplos anteriores, no hemos agregado al autor de la acción, ya que no es en lo que nos estamos enfocando.

Change the active voice of Present continuous tense into passive voice!

Change the active voice of Present continuous tense into passive voice

Practice set!

Sentences in the active voice:

  1. She is cooking food.
  2. My parents are making budget plans.
  3. The school is organizing a picnic.
  4. Everyone is praising your work.
  5. How are they doing it?
  6. I am not doing anything these days.
  7. Whom are you dating now?
  8. Is he not seeing a girl?
  9. Where are you giving classes?
  10. Jon is holding a press conference.

Answers:

Sentences in the passive voice:

  1. Food is being cooked by her.
  2. Budget plans are being made by my parents.
  3. A picnic is being organized by the school.
  4. Your work is being praised by everyone.
  5. How is it being done by them?
  6. Nothing is being done these days by me.
  7. Whom is being dated by you now?
  8. Is a girl not being seen by him?
  9. Where are classes being given by you?
  10. A press conference is being held by Jon.

Use of IS/AM/ARE

IS he, she, it & singular noun names (Jon, Roxy, mother, doctor, chair, etc.)
AM (first-person pronoun)
ARE you, we, they & plural noun names (people, friends, parents, doctors, chairs, etc.)

The subject used with is, am, and are

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What is a cleft sentence?

What is a cleft sentence
A cleft sentence is derived from a simple sentence by dividing it into two clauses : e.g. John broke the window. (simple sentence) → It was John who broke the window. (cleft) → It was the window that John broke. (cleft) There are two types of cleft sentences: It- Cleft sentences. Wh- Cleft sentences.

Una oración hendida se enfoca en una parte de una oración. Agrega la parte que ya se conoce o entiende a una parte que no conoce el oyente. Una oración hendida es una forma de agregar enfoque en lo que es más importante para nosotros. Aquí, en oraciones hendidas, una sola idea se divide en dos partes donde el foco se coloca en un elemento.

En una oración hendida, la información se divide en dos partes:

a) uno que ya es conocido por los oyentes y es menos importante para nosotros
b) y el otro que no se conoce o es nuevo para los oyentes y es en lo que el hablante quiere enfocarse

En una oración hendida, la información se forma de una manera diferente a su estructura original. La parte que se enfoca aquí se mueve de su lugar original.

Puede ser cualquier elemento en el que el hablante se centre y separe en una oración hendida. Estudiemos algunos ejemplos.

Monica took 1000 dollars from a beggar last night.

Cleft sentence: It was Monica who took 1000 dollars from a beggar last night. (The focus is on the subject Monica)
Cleft sentence: It was 1000 dollars that Monica took from the beggar last night. (The focus is on the object)
Cleft sentence: It was a beggar whom Monica took 1000 dollars from last night. (The focus is on the object of the preposition)
Cleft sentence: It was last night when Monica took 1000 dollars from a beggar. (The focus is on the time of the action (adverb))

Simple sentence (non-cleft): Rahul stole my car last night.

Ahora, si queremos enfocarnos en una parte de la oración, digamos el sujeto (Rahul), tendremos que usar una oración hendida. Podemos escribir la oración anterior de la siguiente manera:

Cleft sentence: It was Rahul who stole my car last night.

Ahora, el foco está en Rahul, la oración original. Este es un ejemplo de una oración hendida. Una oración hendida generalmente se construye de las siguientes dos maneras:

  • It (pseudo pronoun) + to be form of verb + X + dependent clause
  • Dependent clause starting with WH words + to be form of verb + X

En la primera estructura, X (el elemento en el que se enfoca el hablante) es generalmente un sustantivo o un pronombre sustantivo. Puede ser un sintagma preposicional, adverbial o adjetival. En la segunda estructura, el elemento en el que se enfoca el hablante viene después de una forma de ser de un verbo (verbo de enlace).

Examples:

  • It was Jon who supported me in my tough times.
  • It was your brother Allen who came up with this idea.
  • It is Tina whom I am dating.
  • What I want from you is your support.
  • Who I really want to thank is you.
  • What I want for my birthday is a new bike.

Conversation 1:

Muskaan: I think Smriti paid for your college fee. Didn’t he?
Jon (Cleft sentence): No, it is Rahul who paid for my college fee.
Normal sentence: Rahul paid for your college fee.

Understood or common information: Somebody paid your college fee
New or focus information: Rahul did the action

Aquí se entiende la parte ‘la matrícula universitaria la paga alguien’. El hablante ha usado una estructura hendida para enfocarse en la parte (persona) que el oyente no conoce.

Conversation 2:

Mom: I am elated today.
Ashu: Why, mom? What’s going on?
Mom: We are having Chinese food in the evening. It is my favorite.
Ashu: No, mom, It is Italian food that we are having in the evening. Papa confirmed that a few minutes ago.

Aquí, la comida china es el objeto del verbo ‘tener’. Ashu, en la última línea, usa una estructura de hendidura para enfocarse en el objeto. Si no quisiera poner énfasis adicional en el objeto, la oración se escribiría como: Vamos a tener comida italiana por la noche. En la hendidura, deliberadamente puso énfasis en el objeto, que era una nueva información para el oyente (mamá).

Conversation 3:

Alex: Someone saved your sister from falling into a pot.
John: It was my friend Anoop who did that.

El foco está en la parte resaltada (negrita). El resto se entiende y se toma del enunciado anterior.

Conversation 4:

Maxwell: I spoke to your father yesterday.
Smith: It was my uncle (who) you spoke to.

Conversation 5:

Raj: Sneha was waiting for someone at the party.
Danish: It was you who she was waiting for at the party.

Nota: puede terminar la oración en la parte en la que se enfoca, ya que el resto ya se conoce.

Ex – It was you.

Types of cleft sentences

Types of cleft sentences

Hay dos tipos de oraciones hendidas comunes en inglés:

  1. Using the psuedo subject ‘IT’
  2. Using the WH words
  3. Reverse pseudo cleft
  4. Using the word ‘ALL’

Cleft sentences with pseudo IT db2424

Usar un pseudo pronombre ‘eso’ es la forma más común de formar una oración hendida. Las oraciones hendidas de TI generalmente se usan para corregir información y enfocarse en la información recién agregada.

Structure:

Normal: Subject + verb phrase + object (X) + other part (optional)
Cleft: It + to be verb + object (X) + adjective clause (that/who/whom + subject + verb phrase)

Examples:

Non-cleft: Jon supported me in my tough times.
Cleft: It was Jon who supported me in my tough times.

Non-cleft: An old farmer from Kerala created a machine that changes trash cans into running shoes.
Cleft: It was an old man from Kerala who created a machine that changes trash cans into running shoes.

Non-cleft: I am looking forward to meeting Conor the most.
Cleft: It is meeting Conor that I am looking forward to the most.

Non-cleft: I couldn’t join you because I was ill.
Cleft: It was because I was ill that I couldn’t join you.

Usar un pseudo pronombre ‘eso’ es la forma más común de formar una oración hendida. El foco de la hendidura puede ser el siguiente en la estructura:

  • Subject
  • Object of a verb
  • Object of a preposition
  • Adverbial

1. Cleft focusing on the SUBJECT

Situation 1:

I think Smriti paid for your college fee. Didn’t he?
Normal sentence: Rahul paid for your college fee.
Cleft sentence: It is Rahul who paid for my college fee.

Understood or common information: Somebody paid for your college fee
New or focus information: Rahul did the action

Aquí se entiende la parte ‘la matrícula universitaria la paga alguien’. El hablante ha usado una estructura hendida para enfocarse en la parte (persona) que el oyente no conoce.

Situation 2:

Didn’t Simran call your father last night?
Cleft: No, it was Manisha who called my father last night.

Normal sentence: Manisha called my father last night.

Situation 3:

Ashish: iPhone 11 has been awarded as the best smartphone in 2021.
Max: That’s not correct. It is the iPhone 13 that’s been awarded as the best smartphone in 2021. (cleft)

Situation 4:

Charu: IIM Indore produces the best HR managers, according to a report.
Monica: That’s amazing.
Ankit: That’s not necessarily true. It is IIM Ahmedabad that does it. (cleft)

La última oración es una oración hendida. La información que es nueva y en la que Ankit se enfoca (X) se resalta al dividir la oración en dos partes. La cláusula que sigue a X (Ankit) se refiere a la misma información que ya proporcionó Charu. Entonces. ‘que lo hace’ aquí significa ‘que produce los mejores gerentes de recursos humanos’.

2. Cleft focusing on the OBJECT

Cleft focusing on the OBJECT
relative clause (subject) + part of the verb to be + complement. What I saw + was + a bright light.

La parte de enfoque (X) también puede ser el objeto del verbo. Veamos algunos ejemplos donde se usan oraciones hendidas para enfocarse en el objeto del verbo.

Situation 1:

Mom: I am elated today.
Ashu: Why, mom? What’s going on?
Mom: We are having Chinese food in the evening. It is my favorite.
Ashu: No, mom, It is Italian food that we are having in the evening. Papa confirmed that a few minutes ago.

Aquí, la comida china es el objeto del verbo ‘tener’. Ashu, en la última línea, usa una estructura de hendidura para enfocarse en el objeto. Si no quisiera poner énfasis adicional en el objeto, la oración se escribiría como: Vamos a tener comida italiana por la noche. En la hendidura, deliberadamente puso énfasis en el objeto, que era una nueva información para el oyente (mamá).

Situation 2:

Aarushi: Who are you dating, Ashish?
Ashish: No one.
Aarushi: Hey, come on. I know you are dating someone. Please tell.
Ashish: It is Megha who I am dating. Please don’t share this with anyone.

Aarushi, aquí, quiere centrarse específicamente en el objeto (persona) del verbo ‘citas’. Y como quiero centrarme en el nombre, se ha utilizado la hendidura. También tenga en cuenta que cuando el objeto de un verbo es una persona, who/whom/that puede usarse para referirse a él.

It is Megha whom I am dating.
It is Megha who I am dating.
It is Megha that I am dating.

3. Cleft focusing on the OBJECT OF A PREPOSITION

Situation 1:

A: You looked upset at the party. Were you still upset with us?
B: I wasn’t upset with you all. It was my brother Alex whom I was upset with.

Situation 2:

Tom: You think about Mary anymore. She doesn’t deserve it.
Sam: I am not. It’s her sister (whom) I’m thinking about right now. She got wronged in this.

Situation 3:

Laura: Rahul will be performing with my sister Naura at the party. They look great together.
Jon: It is Maria who he will be performing with. He told me this himself.

4. Cleft focusing on an ADVERBIAL

Un adverbial puede ser el foco de una oración hendida. Veamos algunos ejemplos.

Examples:

Non-cleft: He came to see us the day before yesterday.
Cleft: It was the day before yesterday when he came to see us.

Non-cleft: I will call you tomorrow.
Cleft: It is tomorrow when I will call you.

Non-cleft: They are buying a house in London.
Cleft: It is In London that they are buying a house.
or
Cleft: It is London where they are buying a house.

Si el adverbial (tiempo) es un sintagma nominal, usamos la conjunción ‘cuando’ después de él. Pero si es una frase preposicional, use la conjunción ‘eso’ después de ella.

NOTE: The verb (to be) of the pseudo subject (IT) needs to be singular even if the focus point (X) is plural.

Examples:

  • It is my friends who motivate me to pursue my dream.
  • It was your colleagues who saved you from getting fired.

WH cleft sentences (pseudo cleft)

Estas son oraciones hendidas que comienzan con palabras de la familia WH, generalmente la palabra ‘QUÉ’. Estas oraciones generalmente responden a una pregunta. Tenga en cuenta que estas oraciones hendidas generalmente comienzan con la conjunción ‘qué’.

Structure: WH clause (known information) + to be verb + X (focus part)

Examples:

Question: What do you want from me?
Cleft: What I want is your support.
Non-cleft: I want your support.

Non-cleft: We want to get a job right now.
Cleft: What we want right now is to get a job.

Non-cleft: I needed a safe house to stay.
Cleft: What I needed was a safe house to stay.

Non-cleft: I loved the food the most at the party.
Cleft: What I loved the most at the party was the food.

Non-cleft: He wrote his resignation letter and threw it at his employer’s face.
Cleft: What happened was that he wrote his resignation letter and threw it at his employer’s face.

More examples:

  • What I want right now is a person who I can trust.
  • What she really wants is your money.
  • What I am saying is that I can’t work with anymore.
  • What I said to him was that you don’t deserve this job.

Other WH cleft sentences

Non-cleft: Sam used to live in a deserted village.
Cleft: Where Sam used to live was a deserted village.

Non-cleft: I reached home at 2 am.
Cleft: When I reached home was 2 am.

Non-cleft: We do this job because we love it.
Cleft: Why we do this job is because we love it.

Non-cleft: We want to hire your brother.
Cleft: Who we want to hire is your brother.

Reverse pseudo sentences

En las oraciones con pseudofisura inversa, el foco se coloca al principio, a diferencia de las otras oraciones con fisura.

Structure: X (focus point) + to be verb + WH clause

Cleft: What I gifted him was a racing car.
Reverse cleft: A racing car is what I gifted him.

Cleft: We need your support.
Reverse cleft: Your support is what we need.

Cleft: What I have been looking for is a tech guy.
Reverse cleft: A tech guy is what I have been looking for.

Cleft: What he is asking for the project is 2 crores.
Reverse cleft: 2 crores is what he is asking for.

Aquí, la cláusula que viene después del verbo principal (to be) es una cláusula nominal. Funciona como complemento del sujeto.

Cleft sentences using the word ALL

Aquí, la conjunción qué se sustituye por todo. Una oración hendida que comienza con all hace que la oración sea más enfática.

Examples:

Non-cleft: I just want skilled people to make this a successful product.
Cleft: All I want to make this a successful product is skilled people.

Non-cleft: We just want your support right now.
Cleft: All we want right now is your support.

Non-cleft: We just need love in life.
Cleft: All we need in life is love.

Non-cleft: I am thinking about your family.
Cleft: All I am thinking about is your family.

NOTA: Aquí, la palabra ‘solo’ se usa implícitamente en ‘todas las oraciones hendidas’, y la palabra ‘todos’ se puede reemplazar con la frase ‘lo único’. Usar esta frase hace que la oración sea más enfática. Aquí hay unos ejemplos:

Examples:

All we were looking for was your performance.
The only thing we were waiting for was your performance.

All they gave me in exchange for the phone was a cheap camera.
The only they gave me in exchange for the phone was a cheap camera.

All I am asking for is your time.
The only thing I am asking is your time.

All I did was give her my laptop, and she started crying.
The only thing I did was give her my laptop, and she started crying.

All I did was look at her, and they threw me out of the class.
The only thing I did was look at her, and they threw me out of the class.

En esta oración, nos estamos enfocando en el verbo. La oración quiere decir que no hicieron mucho. Aquí, la estructura hendida se usa para enfocarse en el hecho de que el verbo no tuvo mucha participación en el resultado.

Practice set!

SET 1
Cambie estas oraciones normales a ‘si oraciones’ enfocándose en el sujeto.

  • Jon brought that gift for me.
  • Your father is leading this case.
  • My book is considered one of the best books for learning English.

Answers:

  • It was Jon who brought that gift for me.
  • It is your father who is leading this case.
  • It is my book that is considered one of the best books for learning English.

SET 2
Cambie estas oraciones normales a ‘si oraciones’ enfocándose en el objeto directo.

  1. I need your laptop right now.
  2. They called my sister Anna for the role.
  3. She betrayed me, not you.

Answers:

  1. It is your laptop I need right now.
  2. It was my sister Anna who they called for the role.
  3. It was her who she betrayed, not you.

SET 3
Cambie estas oraciones normales a ‘si oraciones’ centrándose en un adverbial.

  1. They called me a few minutes ago to show up.
  2. She ran away with all the money last night.
  3. They hid the bag in their apartment.

Answers:

  1. It was a few minutes ago when they called me to show up.
  2. It was last when she ran away with all the money.
  3. It was in their apartment that they hid the bag.

SET 4

Cambie estas oraciones normales a ‘oraciones hendidas WH’ centrándose en el objeto directo.

  1. I need your laptop right now.
  2. They called my sister Anna for the role.
  3. I just had a small apple in the morning.
  4. Jonas gave me a diamong watch.

Answers:

  1. What I need right now is your laptop.
  2. Who they called for the role was my sister Anna.
  3. What I had in the morning was a small apple.
  4. What Jonas gave me in the morning was a diamong watch.

SET 5

Cambie estas oraciones normales a ‘oraciones hendidas inversas’ centrándose en el objeto directo.

  1. I need your laptop right now.
  2. They called my sister Anna for the role.
  3. I just had a small apple in the morning.
  4. Jonas gave me a diamong watch.

Answers:

  1. Your laptop is what I need right now.
  2. My sister was who they called for the role.
  3. A small apple was what I had in the morning.
  4. A diamond watch was what Jonas gave me.

SET 6

Cambie estas oraciones normales a ‘TODAS las oraciones hendidas’ centrándose en el objeto directo.

  1. I need your laptop right now.
  2. I just had a small apple in the morning.
  3. Jonas gave me a diamond watch.

Answers:

  1. All I need right now is your laptop.
  2. All I had in the morning was a small apple.
  3. All Jonas gave me in the morning was a diamond watch.

FAQs

What is a cleft sentence in grammar?

What is a cleft sentence in grammar
Una oración hendida es un mecanismo para enfocarse en un elemento específico de la oración. El elemento en el que nos enfocamos en una estructura de hendidura es información que es nueva para el oyente y, a menudo, la construimos para hacer que la oración sea más enfática. El tipo más común de oración hendida es una oración IT CLEFT.

Here is the structure: It + to be verb + focus information + relative clause

Examples:

Non-cleft: Your own brother stole your car.
Cleft: It was your own brother who stole your car.

Other cleft sentences

Non-cleft: We wanted your support.
Cleft: All we wanted was your support.

Non-cleft: I want a house to live in.
Cleft: What I want is a house to live in.

What is an example of a cleft sentence?
Non-cleft: The company is looking for some good coders.
Cleft: It is some good coders the company is looking for.

Non-cleft: The company is looking for some good coders.
Cleft: What the company is looking for is some good coders.

Non-cleft: The company is looking for some good coders.
Cleft: All the company is looking for is some good coders.

What is cleft in syntax?
En lingüística, una hendidura es una construcción en la que el escritor/hablante se enfoca en una parte de una oración al dividirla en dos partes: una que ya se conoce y la otra que es nueva (en lo que el hablante se enfoca para hacer que la oración sea enfática). ).

Non-cleft: She wants your money.
Cleft: What she wants is your money.

How do you write a cleft sentence?
There are a few ways to write a cleft construction in English. The most common one is an IT CLEFT STRUCTURE:
IT (pseudo subject) + to be form of a verb + X (the focus part) + relative clause. The focus part (X) is usually a noun/noun phrase, but it can be an adverbial either.

Examples:

  1. It is you who should be blamed for this loss.
  2. It was a beggar who won the lottery.
  3. It was after the match that they came to see us.

What are the types of cleft sentences?
Estos son los tipos más comunes de oraciones hendidas en inglés:

  1. IT CLEFT sentence
  2. WHAT cleft sentence
  3. REVERSE cleft sentence
  4. ALL cleft sentence

Non-cleft: She wants your money.

  1. It is your money that she wants.
  2. What she wants is your money.
  3. Your money is what she wants.
  4. All she wants is your money.

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Pasado perfecto (voz activa y pasiva)

Pasado perfecto (voz activa y pasiva)

En esta publicación, aprenderemos cómo usar la voz pasiva del pasado perfecto y cómo cambiar la voz activa a la voz pasiva del tiempo pasado perfecto.

Active and passive voice in the Past perfect tense

Active and passive voice in the Past perfect tense

Comprendamos en qué situaciones usamos la voz activa y pasiva en el tiempo pasado perfecto.

When to use the active voice in the Past perfect tense?

Escribimos frases en voz activa del Pasado Perfecto cuando queremos centrarnos en la persona/personas que han realizado una acción en el pasado antes de otra acción o tiempo.

Structure: Subject + had + past participle (V3) + object

  • Subject = the doer of the action
  • Object = the receiver of the action

Examples:

  • She had finished the project before the deadline.
  • They had quit the job.

En estos ejemplos, nos estamos enfocando en la persona o personas que realizaron la acción en el pasado.

When to use the passive voice in the Past perfect tense?

When to use the passive voice in the Past perfect tense

 

Las oraciones se escriben en pasado perfecto de voz pasiva cuando queremos centrarnos en el receptor de la acción: cuando queremos hablar sobre qué o sobre quién ha actuado el autor de la acción.

Y dado que cambiamos el enfoque al objeto del verbo desde el sujeto, el objeto se convierte en el sujeto y el sujeto (hacedor) se convierte en una entidad irrelevante o menos importante en una oración.

Structure: Object + had been + past participle (V3) + by + subject (doer)

Examples:

  • The project had been completed by her before the deadline.
  • The job had been quit by them.

Active and passive voice of Past perfect tense

Active voice: Subject had V3 object
Passive voice: object had + been V3 (by + subject)

 

  • Active: I had paid the money.
    (focusing on the doer of the action ‘I’)
  • Passive: The money had been paid (by me).
    (focusing on the object that the action was acted upon ‘The money’)

Tenga en cuenta que, por lo general, no agregamos al autor de la acción a la oración, ya que no es importante para el significado de la oración o ya se entiende. Pero es completamente tu elección hacerlo.

Changing active voice into passive voice in the Past Perfect tense

Active: We had trained them well.
Passive: They had been trained well (by us).

Active: Some people had followed her to her office.
Passive: She had been followed to her office (by some people).

Active: The teacher had thrown us out of the class.
Passive: We had been thrown out of the class (by the teacher).

Active: They had copied all my answers.
Passive: All my answers had been copied (by them).

Active: Someone had stolen my car before I reached home.
Passive: My car had been stolen (by someone) before I reached home.

Active: The police had arrested him.
Passive: He had been arrested (by the police).

Active: His parents had warmed him before he did the crime.
Passive: He had been warned (by his parents) before he did the crime.

Active: She had saved my family from those people.
Passive: My family had been saved from those people (by her).

Negative sentences (Active and voice voice)

Active and passive voice of Past perfect tense (negative sentences)

Active voice: Subject had not V3 object
Passive voice: Object had + been not V3 by + subject (optional)

Active: He had not invited me for the party.
Passive: I had not been invited for the party (by him).

Active: Sam hadn’t helped us at all.
Passive: We hadn’t been helped at all (by Sam).

Active: We had not recorded the video.
Passive: The video had not been recorded (by us).

Active: She hadn’t bought anything at the store.
Passive: Nothing had been bought at the store (by her).

NOTA: Si ‘cualquier cosa’ es el objeto del verbo en voz activa de una oración negativa, cambiará a ‘nada’ en voz pasiva.

Interrogative sentences (Active and voice voice)

Interrogative sentences (Active and voice voice)

Active and passive voice of Past perfect tense (interrogative sentences)

Active voice: Question words (if any) had subject V3 object?
Passive voice: Question words had object been + V3 (by + subject)?

Examples:

Active: Had you called me?
Passive: Had I been called by you?

Active: Had he not helped you in your assignment?
Passive: Had you not been helped in your assignment by him?

Active: Had they contacted you for the class?
Passive: Had you been contacted for the class by them?

Active: Where had she invested the money?
Passive: Where had the money been invested by her?

Active: Why had you sold the car?
Passive: Why had the car been sold by you?

Active: What had you taken before lunch?
Passive: What had been taken before lunch by you?

Practice!

  1. Nobody had helped me in my tough times.
  2. My friends had supported my family.
  3. Some people had attacked his wife.
  4. Where had he taken the money from?
  5. Had they called her?
  6. How had you done that?
  7. Everyone had mocked me for my pronunciation.
  8. They hadn’t released the movie before the end.
  9. Somebody had deposited a lot of money into my account.
  10. I had not caught the train.

Answers:

  1. I had not been helped in my tough times by anyone.
  2. My family had been supported by my friends.
  3. His wife had been attacked by some people.
  4. Where had the money been taken from by him?
  5. Had she been called by them?
  6. How had that been done by you?
  7. I had been mocked for my pronunciation by everyone.
  8. The movie hadn’t been released before the end.
  9. A lot of money had been deposited into my account by someone.
  10. The train had not been caught by me.

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Voz activa a voz pasiva en presente perfecto

Voz activa a voz pasiva en presente perfecto

Voz activa a voz pasiva en presente perfecto

Esta publicación lo ayuda a comprender cómo usar la voz pasiva en tiempo presente perfecto y cuándo usamos la voz pasiva en tiempo presente perfecto.

Present perfect tense active passive structure

Active voice Subject + has/have + past participle (V3) + object
Passive voice Object + has/have + been + past participle (V3) + (by + subject)

Mira los siguientes ejemplos:

Active: She has cooked the food.
Passive: The food has been cooked by her.

Both the above sentences are in the Present perfect tense and render the same meaning. But they are focusing on different things.

The first sentence, which is in the active voice, focuses on the doer of the action (subject): she. But the second sentence, which is in the passive voice, focuses on the receiver of the action (object): the food.

En el tiempo presente perfecto, hablamos de acciones completadas, solo para dar la actualización de la acción, o para hablar sobre nuestras experiencias de vida. En la voz activa del presente perfecto, hablamos de lo que alguien ha terminado. El foco está en el autor de la acción que ha completado una acción.

Pero en la voz pasiva del tiempo presente perfecto, hablamos de lo que se ha completado o terminado; quién lo ha terminado no es importante en la voz pasiva del tiempo presente perfecto.

Active to passive voice in Present Perfect tense

Active to passive voice in Present Perfect tense

  • Active voice: I have written an amazing song.
  • Passive voice: An amazing song has been written (by me).
  • Active voice: Jon has helped me a lot.
  • Passive voice: I have been helped a lot (by Jon).
  • Active voice: Most people have tried alcohol.
  • Passive voice: Alcohol has been tried (by most people).
  • Active voice: Nobody has done this before.
  • Passive voice: This has never been done before (by anyone).
  • Active voice: My father has helped a lot of people.
  • Passive voice: A lot of people have been helped (by my father).
  • Active voice: I have ordered food for everyone in the room.
  • Passive voice: Food has been ordered for everyone in the room (by me).
  • Active voice: Mangesh has bought a car recently.
  • Passive voice: A car has been bought recently (by Mangesh).
  • Active voice: They have launched the trailer of the movie.
  • Passive voice: The trailer of the movie has been launched (by them).
  • Active voice: The government has launched a new job portal.
  • Passive voice: A new job portal has been launched (by the government).
  • Active voice: They have cleared the interview.
  • Passive voice: The interview has been cleared (by them).

Negative sentences

Negative sentence in present perfect tense passive voice

Active voice Subject + has/have + not + past participle (V3) + object
Passive voice Object + has/have + not + been + past participle (V3) + (by + subject)

Negative sentences

Examples:

  • Active voice: I haven’t made that lesson.
  • Passive voice: That lesson hasn’t been made by me.
  • Active voice: She hasn’t invited me to the party.
  • Passive voice: I haven’t been invited to the party by her.
  • Active voice: India hasn’t lost the match yet.
  • Passive voice: The match hasn’t been lost yet by India.
  • Active voice: They haven’t aired the interview yet.
  • Passive voice: The interview hasn’t been aired yet by them.
  • Active voice: They haven’t finished the song.
  • Passive voice: The song hasn’t been finished (by them).
  • Active voice: The cops haven’t caught the terrorist yet.
  • Passive voice: The terrorist hasn’t been caught yet.

Contractions

Have not = haven’t
Has not = hasn’t

Interrogative sentences

Interrogative sentence in the present perfect tense passive voice

Active voice Has/have +subject + past participle (V3) + object?
Passive voice Has/have + object + been + past participle (V3) + (by + subject)?

Examples:

  • Active voice: Have you called him yet?
  • Passive voice: Has he been called yet?
  • Active voice: Has Jyoti invited you to the party?
  • Passive voice: Have you been invited to the party by her?
  • Active voice: Have you made the plan?
  • Passive voice: Has the plan been made?
  • Active voice: Have they started the match?
  • Passive voice: Has the match been started?

Nota: cuando el autor de la acción ya se entiende o no es importante, no lo mencione. En algunos de los ejemplos anteriores de la voz pasiva, no hemos mencionado al autor de la acción (sujeto).

WH question words

Active voice: What have you done recently?
Passive voice: What has been done recently (by you)?

Active voice: How has she done it?
Passive voice: How has it been done (by her)?

Active voice: Where have you done it?
Passive voice: Where has it been done (by you)?

Active voice: Why has he bought this car?
Passive voice: Why has this car been bought (by him)?

Active voice: Whom have you taught?
Passive voice: Who has been taught (by you)?

Practice set!

Cambia las siguientes oraciones en voz activa a la voz pasiva del tiempo presente perfecto:

  1. We have adopted the dog.
  2. Sam has never liked me.
  3. Most people haven’t tasted this.
  4. The teacher has started the lecture.
  5. Have you seen him on campus?
  6. My parents have supported me in whatever I do.
  7. Has anyone kissed you yet?
  8. Have they prepared the food?
  9. Everyone has forgotten you already.
  10. Your love has changed me completely.

Answers:

  1. The dog has been adopted by us.
  2. I have never been liked by Sam.
  3. This hasn’t been tasted by most people.
  4. The lecture has been by the teacher.
  5. Has he been seen on campus (by you)?
  6. I have been supported in whatever I do by my parents.
  7. Have you been kissed yet (by anyone)?
  8. Has the food been prepared (by them)?
  9. You have been forgotten by everyone already.
  10. I have been changed completely by your love.

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¿Qué es un doble comparativo? (con ejemplos)

¿Qué es un doble comparativo? (con ejemplos)

Un comparativo doble es un error gramatical causado por aplicar dos formas de formar un comparativo en lugar de uno. Los comparativos dobles se cometen más comúnmente cuando alguien usa “-er” y “more” al mismo tiempo (por ejemplo, más alto).

Easy Examples of Double Comparatives

Easy Examples of Double Comparatives

  • He is more wiser than the teachers. ❌
    (should be wiser)
  • Flossy is more quicker than Susan. ❌
    (should be quicker)

Real-Life Examples of Double Comparatives

Las reglas para formar comparativos son bastante complicadas, pero veamos algunas de las formas comunes de crear un comparativo para que podamos hablar sobre el error conocido como doble comparativo. La forma comparativa de muchos adjetivos se crea agregando el sufijo -er o colocando más o menos antes. No puedes hacer ambas cosas. Ese es un grave error llamado doble comparativo.

  • You’re considerably more richer than George. ❌
    (should be richer)
  • I’m more affluenter than you.
    (should be more affluent)
  • You’re even more stupider than you look. ❌
    (This should be more stupid or stupider (which is an acceptable alternative) but definitely not more stupider.)

Muchos adjetivos que terminan en -y, cambian la y por una i antes de agregar el sufijo -er. No puedes hacer esto y usar más también.

  • Ireland is more windier than England. ❌
    (should be windier)
  • Ice-cream is more tastier than sorbet. ❌
    (should be tastier)

Algunos adjetivos comunes tienen formas comparativas específicas (por ejemplo, lo bueno se vuelve mejor y lo malo se vuelve peor). También ves comparativos dobles con estos.

  • I’m more better than you. ❌
  • I’m betterer than you. ❌
    (should be better in both examples)
  • I’m more worse than you. ❌
  • I’m worser than you. ❌
    (should be worse in both examples)

Los ejemplos anteriores son todos comparativos dobles de adjetivos. De vez en cuando, también ves comparativos dobles con adverbios.

  • We have loads of chickens now because our rooster can run more faster than our hens. ❌
    (should be faster)

Why Should I Care about Double Comparatives?

Why Should I Care about Double Comparatives

Los comparativos dobles son mucho más comunes en el habla que en la escritura. En el habla, a menudo son perdonables porque generalmente se pueden descartar como un lapsus. Por escrito, sin embargo, una doble comparativa es un grave error.

¿Cómo usar el doble comparativo en inglés?

Usamos el comparativo doble con The y Adjetivos comparativos, así que es bueno que tengamos muy claro las reglas del comparativo en inglés, las terminaciones R, ER, IER, así como también cuándo agregar MORE a los adjetivos largos.

¿Cuáles son los comparativos en inglés ejemplos?

Lista de Adjetivos comparativos y superlativos en inglés

Adjetivo positivo Comparativo Superlativo
Angry Angrier Angriest
Bad Worse Worst
Beautiful More beautiful Most beautiful
Big Bigger Biggest

 

¿Cuál es el comparativo en inglés?

El comparativo se usa en inglés para comparar diferencias entre los dos objetos a los que modifica (larger, smaller, faster, higher). Se emplea en oraciones donde comparamos dos nombres, de la manera siguiente: Nombre (sujeto) + verbo + adjetivo en grado comparativo + than + nombre (objeto).

¿Cuándo se duplica la última consonante en los comparativos en inglés?

Doble consonante + er: Si una palabra termina en consonante – vocal – consonante y la sílaba fuerte es la última, entonces se duplica la última letra antes de añadir “er”. Por ejemplo: big – bigger.

¿Cómo se forman los comparativos?

1 Los adjetivos y adverbios de una sílaba forman el comparativo añadiendo -er y el superlativo añadiendo -est.

¿Cómo se dividen los adjetivos comparativos en inglés?

Reglas para formar comparativos y superlativos en inglés

Los comparativos y los superlativos son adjetivos. Éstos se dividen en dos grupos: comparativos y superlativos regulares e irregulares.

¿Cómo hacer oraciones con adjetivos superlativos en inglés?

¿Cómo hacer oraciones con adjetivos superlativos en inglés

Por ejemplo, si quieres decir “Mi casa es la más grande del vecindario”, en inglés armarías la oración “My house is the biggest on the neighborhood”. Para construir una oración con sentido superlativo necesitas los siguientes elementos: Sujeto + verbo + “the” + adjetivo conjugado en superlativo + objeto.

¿Cuál es el adjetivo comparativo de interesting?

Para utilizar un comparativo tenemos que estar hablando de dos o más sustantivos y compararlos entre sí con objeto de decidir cuál de ellos es mejor (better), más alto (taller), más interesante (more interesting), etc.

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La diferencia entre “incidencia” e “incidentes”

La diferencia entre “incidencia” e “incidentes”

“Incidencia” e “incidentes” son fáciles de confundir porque suenan idénticos (es decir, son homónimos perfectos). Sin embargo, sus significados son muy diferentes.

  • La “incidencia” es el número de nuevos casos de enfermedad (p. ej., coronavirus, COVID-19, gripe, sarampión) o lesiones en una población durante un período de tiempo específico. (Más abajo)
  • Un “incidente” es un evento. El plural es “incidentes”.

Incidence

Incidence

El sustantivo “incidencia” era raro antes de la pandemia de COVID-19. “Incidencia” es una palabra técnica utilizada en el campo del control de enfermedades. Se refiere a la posibilidad de desarrollar una nueva condición (generalmente una enfermedad) dentro de un período de tiempo específico.

Ejemplos de oraciones con “incidencia”:

  • The chart ‘Incidence of Flu by Area’ shows the number of people with coronavirus and coronavirus symptoms who visited their doctor last week. ✔️
  • They suffer a higher incidence of measles as they did not invest in health-care systems to deliver vaccinations effectively. ✔️

Hay dos medidas principales de incidencia:

  • Incidence Risk. El riesgo de incidencia es la proporción de individuos en una población (inicialmente libre de enfermedad) que desarrollan la enfermedad dentro de un tiempo específico.
  • Incidence Rate. La tasa de incidencia es la frecuencia de nuevos casos de enfermedad en una población.

Incidents

La palabra “incidentes” es el plural de “incidente”, que significa una ocurrencia o un evento.

Ejemplos de oraciones con “incidentes”:

  • There is no evidence to link the two incidents at this time. ✔️
  • The police are investigating two incidents of someone shooting into occupied homes. ✔️

Collection of articles discussing the Difference Between similar terms and things, categories range from Nature to Technology.

¿Que se entiende por incidencia?

¿Que se entiende por incidencia
La incidencia consiste en la organización de un proceso deliberado o planificado para influir en algún actor con poder de decisión. La incidencia puede ejercerla cualquier persona, grupo u organización en función de promover sus intereses particulares.

Es la cantidad de casos nuevos de una enfermedad, un síntoma, muerte o lesión que se presenta durante un período de tiempo específico, como un año. La incidencia muestra la probabilidad de que una persona de una cierta población resulte afectada por dicha enfermedad.

¿Cuál es la diferencia entre una incidencia y un problema?

Según la definición de la ITIL, un problema es “una causa o posible causa de uno o varios incidentes”. Y un incidente es un solo evento no planificado que causa una interrupción del servicio.

¿Qué es un incidente en ITIL?

La versión más actual de ITIL define un incidente como “una interrupción no planificada de un servicio de TI o una reducción de la calidad de un servicio de TI”. Es decir, un incidente es cualquier interrupción de servicios de Tecnología de la Información que afecta desde un solo usuario hasta toda la empresa.

¿Qué es la incidencia de una empresa?

La incidencia es un acontecimiento que pasa muy rápidamente en un negocio y tendrá consecuencias en el mismo. Una buena gestión de incidencias es de vital importancia para todas las empresas, ya que su cometido es solucionar cualquier problema que ocurra en una empresa de manera rápida y eficaz.

¿Cuál es el sinonimo de incidencias?

1 influencia, efecto, repercusión, consecuencia, resultado, alcance. Ejemplo: La orografía tiene incidencia en las condiciones climáticas de un lugar. Acontecimiento o suceso: 2 acontecimiento, suceso, acaecimiento, hecho, incidente, ocurrencia, evento.

¿Qué es un incidente y ejemplos?

Ejemplos de incidentes: Casi cae, por piso resbaloso. El vehículo se pasó el semáforo en rojo, pero no colisionó. El madero cayó desde el tercer piso y le pasó cerca de la cabeza del trabajador, pero no lo golpeó. El ascensor se descolgó, pero se frenó antes de colisionar con el piso, nadie se lesionó.

¿Qué es un incidente en un proyecto?

Un incidente es un problema formalmente definido que impedirá el progreso del proyecto y no puede ser resuelto por el Gerente del Proyecto y su equipo de trabajo, sin participación externa. Veamos de nuevo la definición. Un problema formalmente definido. Debe ser capaz de documentar un problema si espera resolverlo.

¿Cómo se clasifican los incidentes?

Un incidente será clasificado de acuerdo a las siguientes escalas: ➢ Incidentes Muy Graves. Se considerarán incidentes mayores aquellos incidentes cuya puntuación sea superior a 160 puntos. ➢ Incidentes Graves: cuando la puntuación sea menor o igual a 160 puntos e igual o superior a 110 puntos.

¿Por qué es importante reportar los incidentes?

Reportar un incidente o condición insegura es muy importante para la prevención de accidentes de trabajo, esto permite implementar de manera oportuna medidas preventivas.

¿Cuándo se promueve un incidente?

¿Cuándo se promueve un incidente

Cuando los hechos que fundan el incidente, hubiesen acaecido en el desarrollo de una audiencia, deberá promoverse en ésta. La sanción por la extemporaneidad de la promoción de un incidente, será la inadmisibilidad de la demanda incidental7. La tramitación del incidente en una audiencia, se realizará de manera oral.

¿Cómo documentar un incidente?

El registro implica tomar nota de qué sucedió, y documentarlo, es decir, recopilar toda la información de dicho incidente o ataque que nos permita entender qué pasó, incluso después de un tiempo.

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Tiempo pasado continuo (voz activa y pasiva)

Tiempo pasado continuo (voz activa y pasiva)

Este artículo te ayuda a aprender cómo escribir oraciones en la voz activa y la pasiva del tiempo pasado continuo, y cómo cambiar una oración en la voz activa a la voz pasiva del tiempo pasado continuo.

Past Continuous tense active and passive voice

En tiempo pasado continuo, también conocido como tiempo pasado progresivo, hablamos de acciones que estaban sucediendo en el pasado en un momento específico.

When to use the active voice in Past continuous tense?

When to use the active voice in Past continuous tense

La voz activa del Pasado Continuo se usa cuando quieres enfocarte en la persona que estaba realizando la acción en el pasado. Cuando quieras enfocarte y hablar sobre el autor de la acción, escribe la oración en voz activa.

Structure: Subject + was/were + V1+ing + object

Examples:

  • I was training Megha yesterday.
  • Sam was talking the class.
  • Jon was riding your bike in the morning.
  • They were playing cricket when I reached there.
  • We were not doing anything in your absence.
  • The boys were cooking food last night.

When to use the passive voice in Past continuous tense?

La voz pasiva del Pasado Continuo se usa cuando quieres enfocarte en la persona o la cosa que estaba recibiendo la acción en el pasado; que se estaba actuando. Cuando el receptor de la acción (objeto del verbo) es más importante que el mismo hacedor, escribe la oración en la voz pasiva del Pasado continuo.

Structure: Object+ was/were + being + V3 + (by + subject)

Past continuous tense passive voice examples:

  • The students were being taught in a weird way (by him).
  • The match was being played at a huge stadium.
  • I was being told to invest in that company.
  • Those guys were being beaten brutally last night.

NOTA: El autor de la acción en voz pasiva no se menciona o se separa entre paréntesis porque es menos importante o ya se entiende en voz pasiva. Pero siempre puede agregar el sujeto (hacedor) si lo desea.

Active and passive voice of past continuous tense

Active and passive voice of past continuous tense

Active voice: Subject was/were V1+ing object
Passive voice: object was/were + being V3 (by + subject)

 

  • Active: I was training Megha yesterday.
    (focusing on the doer of the action ‘I’)
  • Passive: Megha was being trained (by me) yesterday.
    (focusing on the object that was receiving the action ‘Megha’)

More examples:

  • Active: I was taking the class at that time.
  • Passive: The class was being taken at that time (by me).
  • Active: He was eating dinner at 9 pm.
  • Passive: Dinner was being eaten at 9 pm by him.
  • Active: My parents were watching that movie.
  • Passive: That movie was being watched by my parents.
  • Active: Jon was editing my video yesterday.
  • Passive: My video was being edited yesterday by Jon.
  • Active: Some boys were harassing your sister.
  • Passive: Your sister was being harassed (by some boys).
  • Active: They were discussing something in the class.
  • Passive: Something was being discussed in the class (by them).
  • Active: Jyoti was copying the answers.
  • Passive: The answers were being copied (by Jyoti).
  • Active: Everyone was hugging the kids at the party.
  • Passive: The kids were being hugged at the party by everyone.
  • Active: They were not feeding the cats.
  • Passive: The cats weren’t being fed by them.

Negative sentences (Active and voice voice)

Active and passive voice of past continuous tense (negative sentences)

Active voice: Subject was/were not V1+ing object
Passive voice: object was/were + not being V3 (by + subject)

Examples:

  • Active: Monu was not doing the assignment.
  • Passive: The assignment was not being done (by Monu).
  • Active: They were not helping us.
  • Passive: We were not being helped (by them).
  • Active: We were not recording the video.
  • Passive: The video was not being recorded by us.
  • Active: She was not buying anything at the store.
  • Passive: Nothing was being bought at the store (by her).

Nota: Si ‘cualquier cosa’ es el objeto del verbo en voz activa de una oración negativa, cambiará a ‘nada’ en voz pasiva.

Interrogative sentences (Active and voice voice)

Interrogative sentences (Active and voice voice)

Active and passive voice of past continuous tense (interrogative sentences)

Active voice: Question words (if any) was/were subject V1+ing object?
Passive voice: Question words was/were object being + V3 (by + subject)

Examples:

  • Active: Were you calling me last night?
  • Passive: Was I being called by you last night?
  • Active: Was he not helping you?
  • Passive: Were you not being helped by him?
  • Active: When were you taking the class?
  • Passive: When was the class being taken by you?
  • Active: Where were they making videos?
  • Passive: Where were the videos being made by them?

Practice!

  1. Mox was hitting me with a bat.
  2. Someone was using you.
  3. They were not helping her.
  4. Why were you beating that boy?
  5. Was he calling me last night?
  6. I was making the next lesson.

Answers:

  1. I was being hit with a bat by Mox.
  2. You were being used by someone.
  3. She was not being helped by them.
  4. Why was that boy being beaten by you?
  5. Was I being called last night by him?
  6. The next lesson was being made by me.

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Tipos de complementos en inglés

Tipos de complementos en inglés

Esta lección te ayudará a comprender los diferentes tipos de complementos en inglés, sus usos y cómo identificarlos.

What is a complement in English?

What is a complement in English

En inglés, un complemento es una palabra o un grupo de palabras que completa el significado de una parte de la oración. Es esencial al significado de la parte que complementa; es necesario para traducir el significado que la oración pretende dar.

Types of complements

Hay diferentes tipos de complementos en inglés:

  1. Subject complement
  2. Object complement
  3. Adjective complement
  4. Verb complement
  5. Adverbial complement

Subject complement

Definición de complemento de sujeto: Un complemento de sujeto es una palabra o un grupo de palabras (frase o cláusula) que cambia el nombre del sujeto o lo modifica. Viene después de un verbo de enlace e identifica al sujeto. Cuando cambia el nombre del sujeto, lo llamamos predicado nominativo, y cuando modifica el sujeto, lo llamamos predicado adjetivo.

Un sustantivo renombra al sujeto y un adjetivo lo modifica. Haga clic aquí para dominar un complemento temático en detalle.

Predicate nominative examples:

  • Monu is my best friend.
    (My best friend, which is a noun phrase, is functioning as the subject complement as it’s giving a new name to the subject Monu. Monu = my best friend)
  • You are a lifesaver for us.
    (Here, the noun phrase ‘a lisesaver’ is a subject complement. It is giving a new name to the subject and completing the sentence. You = a lifesaver)
  • My sister is a classical dancer.
    (A classical dancer is a subject complement in the sentence, renaming the subject ‘my sister’.)

NOTA: un predicado nominativo también puede ser una cláusula. Estudia los siguientes ejemplos:

  • The problem is that you don’t listen to anyone.
  • A good think about you is that you respect everyone.

Here, the subject complements are noun clauses.

Predicate adjective examples:

  • The movie was extremely daunting.
    (Extremely daunting (an adjective phrase) is the subject complement that’s modifying the subject The movie. The movie = extremely daunting)
  • Tyson looked invincible in the fight.
    (The subject complement invincible is an adjective that’s modifying the subject Tyson. Looked here is a linking verb, not an action verb.Tyson = invincible)
  • You look handsome in this dress.
    (Handsome is the subject complement here. It is an adjective modifying the subject ‘you’. You = handsome)

NOTA: un adjetivo predicado no puede ser una cláusula. Puede ser una palabra o una frase.

Object complement

Object complement

Definición de complemento de objeto: un complemento de objeto es una palabra o un grupo de palabras (frase) que viene después de un objeto directo, lo identifica y lo renombra o modifica (en qué estado se encuentra). Tenga en cuenta que un sustantivo como complemento de objeto cambia el nombre del objeto, y un adjetivo como complemento de objeto lo modifica.

Nouns as object complement

  • The company just made Ron our team leader.
    (In this sentence, ‘our team leader’ is the object complement (noun phrase) that’s renaming the object ‘him’. Ron = our team leader )
  • The students elected him the class monitor.
    (Here, the object complement ‘the class monitor’ is a noun phrase that’s modifying the object ‘him‘. Him = the class monitor)

In these examples, the object complement is either a noun or a noun phrase. But it can be a noun clause too.

I will call you whatever I want. (You = whatever I want)

Adjectives as object complement

  • Talking to Jane makes me happy.
    (Here, the object complement ‘happy’ is an adjective that’s modifying the object ‘me‘. Me = happy)
  • You proved us wrong again.
    (‘Wrong’ is the object complement here that’s modifying the object ‘me‘. Us = wrong)

NOTA: un complemento de objeto como adjetivo no puede ser una cláusula adjetiva.

Adjective complement

Un complemento de adjetivo es una frase o una cláusula que completa el significado de un adjetivo al dar más información sobre él. La información ayuda a los lectores u oyentes a comprender mejor la situación. Entonces, la información que proporciona es necesaria para completar el significado del adjetivo.

Points to note:

  • An adjective complement is more than a word: a phrase or a clause.
  • It comes right next to an adjective.
  • It sits right next to an adjective.

Las siguientes 3 cosas pueden funcionar como un complemento adjetivo en una oración:

  1. Prepositional phrase
  2. Infinitive phrase
  3. Noun clause

Prepositional phrase as an adjective complement

Prepositional phrase as an adjective complement
1)_ing clause: verb in adj clause shows V_ing Ex1: When summer comes, students are busy preparing for the exam. Ex2: Harry Porter story is worth reading 2) _PP clause: verb in adj clause is a prepositional phrase (pp) Ex1: We were shocked by the news. Ex2:The child was eager for Christmas to arrive.

Una frase preposicional a menudo funciona como un complemento adjetivo en una oración. Como complemento de adjetivo, se sienta al lado de un adjetivo y proporciona más información sobre el adjetivo. Esta información que proporciona ayuda a los lectores u oyentes a comprender mejor el contexto.

Las frases preposicionales se forman usando una preposición y su objeto (sustantivo, frase nominal, cláusula nominal, pronombre).

  • I am mad about your score.
    Here, ‘about your score’ is a prepositional phrase that’s working as an adjective complement. It’s coming next to the adjective ‘mad’ and giving useful information about it. If we ended the sentence with the adjective happy, we wouldn’t have more clarity about the sentence. We wouldn’t know what the speaker is mad about.

Examples:

  • I am concerned about your health.
  • We are happy about what happened last night.
  • Sam is dedicated to this project.

Infinitive phrase as an adjective complement

Cuando una frase en infinitivo funciona como complemento de un adjetivo, habla de la razón del adjetivo (estado).

  • I am happy to see you again.
    ‘To see you again’ is an infinitive phrase that’s coming next to the adjective ‘happy’ and telling us the reason for this state of existence. It completes the meaning of the adjective by telling us why the speaker is happy.
    If it weren’t there, we wouldn’t know why the speaker is happy. This completely changes the meaning of the sentence.

Examples:

  • They were shocked to see me alive.
  • Nancy was scared to lose me.
  • I was not hesitant to leave the job for my values.
  • It is absolutely silly to argue with them.

Noun clause as an adjective complement

Una cláusula nominal es una cláusula dependiente que funciona como un sustantivo en una oración. Las cláusulas nominales a menudo comienzan con las siguientes conjunciones subordinadas: qué, quién, quién, eso, dónde, por qué, cuándo y cómo.

Pero tenga en cuenta que las cláusulas nominales, aquí, no funcionan como un sustantivo; simplemente dan información sobre un adjetivo y completan su significado.

It is evident that she is angry with us.
Here, the noun clause is giving more information about the adjective ‘evident’ and telling us what is evident. It actually shouldn’t be called a noun clause here as it’s functioning as a noun; it is functioning as a modifier: giving information about an adjective.

Examples:

  • It is disappointing that you are still working there.
  • It is evident that she is dying.
  • I am delighted that all my students have passed the exams.
  • We were shocked when he came back to our team.

VERB COMPLEMENT

Un complemento verbal suele ser un objeto que viene después de un verbo y completa su significado. Sin el verbo complemento, la oración deja de tener el mismo significado y se ve incompleta.

I need.
This sentence is incomplete without mentioning the object of the verb. Reading the sentence, you are forced to think about what I need. Let’s complete the sentence using some verb complements.

Corrections (with verb complements):

  • I need money.
  • I need your number.
  • I need some of your workers at my wedding.
  • I need a glass of water.

Now, after adding the object of the verb ‘need’, the sentence makes sense. The object here is completing the meaning of the verb.

More examples of verb complements:

  • Let’s pursue this course.
    You just can’t pursue. You need something to pursue. Without the complement (object) of the verb ‘pursue’, the sentence doesn’t make complete sense. Here, the object ‘this course’ is a complement to the verb and completes the meaning of the verb.
  • I hope that you win this competition.
    Here, the noun clause coming after the verb ‘hope’ is its complement. You don’t just hope; you hope something. Here, the noun clause is the verb’s complement. Without the complement, the sentence (I hope) looks incomplete.
  • We enjoyed watching this show.
    You enjoy something. You need something to enjoy. This verb is incomplete without it. Here, ‘watching this show’ (gerund phrase) is the complement to the verb ‘enjoy’. Try reading it without the complement: we enjoyed. It doesn’t look complete, does it?

What can be a complement to the verb?

Un verbo complemento como su objeto puede ser las siguientes cosas:

  1. Noun or noun phrase
  2. Pronoun
  3. Gerund or gerunds phrase
  4. Infinitive or infinitive phrase
  5. Noun clause

1. Noun or noun phrase
Un sustantivo o una frase nominal a menudo funciona como el objeto de un verbo. Aquí hay unos ejemplos:

  • Some of us are training kids to be fighters.
  • I don’t have money to spend.

2. Pronoun
Un pronombre también puede ser un objeto del verbo. Aquí hay unos ejemplos:

  • I have never seen him.
  • Nobody has touched you inappropriately.

3. Gerund or Gerund phrase
Un gerundio o una frase en gerundio también pueden recibir el verbo principal directamente. Aquí hay unos ejemplos:

  • My friend Monu loves playing with kids.
  • We regret asking you for help.

4. Infinitive or infinitive phrase
Un infinitivo también puede ser un objeto de un verbo. Puedes usarlo con todos los verbos de acción; hay algunos verbos que solo se pueden usar con infinitivos.

Examples:

  • I like to sing sometimes.
  • Your friends want to come to my party.

5. Noun clause
Una cláusula nominal es una cláusula dependiente que funciona como un sustantivo. También puede actuar como el objeto de un verbo. Aquí hay unos ejemplos:

  • I know that you want me to lose.
  • Nobody could imagine that you would lose the fight in the first round.

Adverbial complement

Un complemento adverbial es un adverbio o un adverbial que completa el significado de un verbo. Ayuda a que la oración exprese el significado que pretende dar. Sacar un complemento adverbial de una oración cambia el significado central de la oración; toma una parte esencial de la oración, a diferencia de un adjunto.

Es un tipo de complemento verbal ya que ayuda a completar el significado del verbo.

Examples:

  • I love coming here.
    Here, the adverb ‘here’ is a complement to the verb ‘coming’. You don’t just come; you come to a place. So, mentioning the place is important. The place has to be combined with the verb. Taking the verb complement makes it sound incomplete (I love coming). When you look at this sentence without the adverb, the question ‘where’ organically comes to your mind.
  • Don’t aim for a money fight.
    ‘For a money fight’ is the adverbial complement here. It is a prepositional phrase that is complementing the verb and helping it complete the correct meaning of the sentence. When used as an intransitive verb, it is followed by a prepositional phrase starting with either ‘for’ or ‘at’.
  • We are aiming at the manager’s post.
    When you aim at something; you plan to achieve it. Without using the prepositional phrase starting (at + object), this meaning can’t be delivered. Without the verb complement (We are aiming), the sentence is incomplete and does not render the intended meaning.

Phrasal verbs and adverbial complements

Phrasal verbs and adverbial complements

Un phrasal verb es una combinación de un verbo de acción y una preposición. La preposición en los phrasal verbs cambia el significado del verbo. El phrasal verb a menudo tiene un significado diferente del verbo solo.

Estos son algunos verbos frasales comunes en inglés:

  • Pass out
  • Break up
  • Look up to
  • Get through
  • Go after

Note que la primera palabra en estas frases es una acción y la(s) siguiente(s) palabra(s) es una preposición. Veamos algunos ejemplos usando estos phrasal verbs:

  • You will pass out before the test.
  • I can’t break up with her.
  • We look up to your father.
  • You will get through this problem.
  • The police are going after you.

The preposition in these phrasal verbs is the adverbial complement. Try reading these sentences without the preposition. The sentences stop making sense or give a completely different meaning without the preposition.

Practice set!

Encuentra todo tipo de complementos en las siguientes oraciones:

  1. You seem dedicated.
  2. I have never seen a ghost in my life.
  3. I am happy to see you again.
  4. Don’t put this on.
  5. The food you cooked last night tasted amazing.
  6. We admire your efforts.
  7. You can’t call me your friend.
  8. My parents named him Papaya.
  9. Don’t look up.
  10. I was never your enemy.

Answers:

  1. Subject complement = dedicated
  2. Object complement = a ghost
  3. Subject complement = happy, Adjective complement = to see you again
  4. Adverbial complement = on
  5. Subject complement = amazing
  6. Verb complement = your efforts
  7. Verb complement = me, Object complement = your friend
  8. Verb complement = him, Object complement = Papaya
  9. Adverbial complement = on
  10. Subject complement = your enemy

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Gerundio vs Presente participio: ¿Cuál es la diferencia?

Gerundio vs Presente participio: ¿Cuál es la diferencia?

¿A veces te confundes entre un gerundio y un participio presente?

La mayoría de la gente lo hace. Y la razón es simple: tanto un gerundio como un participio presente se ven iguales. Tanto un gerundio como un participio presente son una forma progresiva de un verbo (V1+ing) que funcionan de manera diferente.

What is the difference between a gerund and a present participle?

What is the difference between a gerund and a present participle

La diferencia entre un gerundio y un participio presente es simple: un gerundio es una forma ‘ing’ de un verbo que funciona como un sustantivo, y un participio presente es una forma ‘ing’ de un verbo que funciona como un verbo de acción o un adjetivo.

Solo concéntrate en las siguientes dos cosas para descubrir la diferencia entre un gerundio y un participio presente:

  • If an ing form of a verb (V1+ing) acts as a noun, call it a gerund.
  • If an ing form of a verb (V1+ing) acts as a verb or an adjective, call it a present participle.

Tomemos la forma ‘ing’ de un verbo y veamos cómo puede ser tanto un gerundio (sustantivo) como un participio presente (verbo o adjetivo).

TEACHING: it can be a gerund or a present participle.

Examples of ‘teaching‘ as a gerund (noun)

  • Teaching is my passion. (subject)
    (The action is teaching is not happening in the sentence; we are just talking about it. Teaching is working as a noun.)
  • I love teaching(object of the verb)
  • Everyone is not interested in teaching(object of the preposition ‘in’)
  • Your teaching is amazing. (object of the possessive adjective ‘your’)
  • My love is teaching(subject complement)

In all the above examples, ‘teaching’ is working as a noun.

Examples of ‘teaching‘ as a present participle (adjective or verb):

  • It is a teaching job.
    (Teaching is working as an adjective here. It is modifying the noun job, telling us what type of job it is)
  • He is teaching school students right now.
    (Here, the action of teaching is happening. Teaching is working as an action verb.)

More examples of present participles:

  • Look at the burning train. (burning adjectivemodifying the noun ‘train’)
  • The girl dancing on the stage is my sister. (dancingadjectivemodifying the noun ‘girl’)
  • This movie is exciting(dancingadjectivemodifying the noun ‘girl’)
  • She is burning her bag. (action verb)
  • We were dancing last night. (action verb)

Positions of a gerund and a present participle

Esta es una forma más de averiguar la diferencia entre un gerundio y un participio presente. Mira la posición de una forma progresiva de un verbo para averiguar si es un gerundio o un participio presente.

Gerund positions in a sentence

  1. Before a main verb (action or linking).
    (As the subject)
  2. After an action verb (transitive).
    (As the object of a verb)
  3. After a linking verb.
    (As the subject complement)
  4. After a preposition.
    (As the object of a preposition)
  5. After a possessive adjective.
    (As the object of a possessive adjective)

Gerund examples:

  • Dancing makes me happy. (Before the main verb ‘makes‘)
  • I hate dancing. (After the main verb ‘hate‘)
  • I am not thinking about dancing. (After the preposition ‘about‘)
  • My passion is dancing. (After the linking verb ‘is‘)
  • Everyone loves your dancing. (After the possessive adjective your)

Position of a present participle

Position of a present participle

  1. Just before a noun
  2. Just after a noun
  3. After a linking verb (main verb)

Examples:

  • Look at the burning train. (before the noun modified)
  • The girl dancing on the stage is my sister. (after the noun modified)
  • This movie is exciting. ((after the linking verb)

Nota: no hay ningún consejo para encontrar la diferencia entre un gerundio y un participio presente cuando van seguidos de un verbo de enlace. Solo necesita mirar su función en ese caso. Un gerundio (sustantivo) cambiará el nombre del sujeto y un participio presente (adjetivo) modificará el sujeto.

  • My passion is dancing. (renaming the subject ‘passion‘)
  • Ashish is exciting. (modifying the subject)

It can be an action verb too.

  • Ashish is dancing. (action verb)

Gerund vs Present participle difference chart

Difference between gerund and present participle

Basic of difference Gerund Present participle
Definition A gerund in English is a progressive form (ing) of a verb that works as a noun in a sentence. A present participle in English is a verb form that works as an adjective or as a verb in a sentence.
Types A gerund can play the following roles:

1. The subject
2. The object of a verb
3. The object of a preposition
4. The object of a possessive adjective
5. The subject complement

A present participle does have any types.
Functions A gerund functions only as a noun.

Ex– Teaching is my passion.

A present participle can function either as a verb or as an adjective.

Examples:
1. He is teaching English. (verb)
2. I hate teaching jobs. (adjective)

Position A gerund can take the following places:

1. Before the main verb (linking or action verb)
2. After an action verb (transitive)
3. After a preposition
4. After a possessive adjective
5. After the main verb (linking verb)

Examples:

1. Teaching is fun. (before the main verb)
2. I love teaching. (after an action verb)
3. He is passionate about teaching. (after a preposition)
4. Your teaching is amazing. (after a possessive adjective)
5. My passion is dancing. (after the main verb)

A present participle can take the following places:

1. Before a noun
2. After a noun
3. After a main verb (linking verb)

Examples:

1. It was a motivating movie. (adjective)
2. Look at the burning train. (adjective)
3. The movie was exciting. (adjective)
4. He is motivating the class. (verb)

 

Another trick to find out the difference between a gerund and a present participle

Un participio presente, además de ir justo antes o justo después del sustantivo al que modifica, va junto a un verbo conector, y un gerundio va antes de un verbo principal, después de un verbo de acción, después de una preposición o después de un adjetivo posesivo.

 

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